The confidence vote in Boris Johnson is taking place because at least 54 Conservative MPs have submitted letters to Graham Brady, the chair of the 1922 Committee of backbenchers, saying they've lost confidence in their leader.
That figure represents 15% of Conservative MPs, the threshold at which a vote is triggered.
Conservative MPs will now cast votes between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. local time on whether they want Johnson to continue in his role or not.
Johnson has faced criticism on his leadership for months, especially over his role in the "Partygate" scandal that saw a litany of revelations about lockdown-breaking gatherings inside Downing Street while the rest of Britain was banned from socializing.
Crucially, this is a secret ballot -- which means that MPs who have stayed publicly loyal to Johnson could still vote to oust him (as long as they're willing to lie about it afterwards.)
If more than half of Tory MPs vote against Johnson, he'll have to step down as Conservative Party leader. He could remain as Prime Minister while a replacement is found in a Tory leadership vote, but once that person is chosen, they'll take over as Britain's leader.