Among its key players, Modi’s BJP-led NDA can rely on the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhgam (AIADMK) in southern Tamil Nadu state, which currently holds 36 out of 39 seats, making it the third largest party in the Lok Sabha.
In northern Bihar, home to 40 seats, the BJP has allies in the Janata Dal (United) and Ram Vilas Paswan's Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), bringing a combined number of eight seats.
The Shiv Sena, an ally in western Maharashtra state (48 seats), is the sixth largest party in the Lok Sabha with 18 seats in the coalition.
In northern Punjab with 13 seats, the Shiromani Akali Dal brings in four seats.
The Congress-led UPA coalition governed India for two consecutive terms before it was routed out by Modi’s NDA.
Its key partners include the Nationalist Congress Party in Maharashtra with seven seats, the Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar and Jharkhand with 4 seats, the Janata Dal (Secular) in Karnataka with two seats and the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference with a single seat.
Another ally is the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in Tamil Nadu, which failed to win a single seat against the AIADMK, then led by the late chief minister Jayaraman Jayalalithaa. The DMK is counting on the absence of Jayalalithaa, anti-incumbency and factions within the AIADMK.