CNN  — 

Heavily armed Russian troops are pushing rapidly towards Ukraine’s capital of Kyiv, and US officials are warning the city could fall within days.

The military capabilities of these two nations are so imbalanced that Ukraine’s defiant president, Volodymyr Zelensky, implored his Western allies overnight to do more than impose sanctions to get Russian troops off Ukrainian soil.

Here’s how the two country’s military capabilities stack up.

Defense spending

Russian tanks move across the town of Armyansk in northern Crimea.

Just a look at the amount of money the two nations spend on defense gives an indication of the gap between the two. Ukraine spent $4.7 billion in 2021, just over a tenth of nuclear-armed Russia’s $45.8 billion, according to “The Military Balance” report by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), published last week.

While the Russian government launched a drive in 2008 to modernize its military, after a brief war with Georgia laid bare equipment shortfalls, Ukraine’s weapons are still largely from the Soviet era. In its ambitions to join NATO, however, Ukraine has reorganized the structure of its armed forces, and has plans to re-equip its air force with Western combat aircraft by the mid-2030s. It also plans to improve its naval capability.


Ukrainian servicemen sit atop armored personnel carriers on a road in the Donetsk region, eastern Ukraine on Thursday.

Where Russia has 900,000 active personnel in its armed forces, and 2 million in reserve, Ukraine has 196,000 and 900,000 reservists. Ukraine on Wednesday began conscripting reservists aged 18-60, according to IISS.

In land forces alone, Russia has a twofold advantage, with 280,000 troops to Ukraine’s 125,600. And its air force is nearly five times as strong, with 165,00 to Ukraine’s 35,000.

But in terms of how many troops are in this particular operation, Yohann Michel, a research analyst who worked on the IISS report, said Russia had an estimated 200,000 personnel in and around Ukraine.

“That’s including around 60 battle groups. The situation is evolving rapidly and that number could change, but it’s very large, and that’s important. It’s one of the largest in eastern Europe that we’ve seen in years – in my lifetime,” Michel told CNN.

“Ukrainian numbers are more difficult because everything they have is now mobilized and they have called in reservists.”