Chile's government distributed faulty birth control pills. Now more than 150 people are pregnant.

Updated 8:32 AM ET, Tue April 6, 2021

This story is part of As Equals, CNN's ongoing series on gender inequality. Find out more about it here.

Santiago, Chile -- In Chile's arid Atacama desert, Tabita Daza Rojas is trying to scrape together enough money to finish construction on her home before her baby, due anyday, arrives.
Eight hundred kilometers to the south, in La Pintana, a suburb of the capital Santiago, Cynthia González is nursing her 2-month-old boy. But she needs to buy milk to supplement her body's supply, and is worried about how she'll afford it.
Rojas and González come from different backgrounds, have different lives and ambitions. Yet they -- and at least 170 other women at the time of writing -- share a common reality: they all claim to have fallen pregnant while taking Anulette CD, an oral contraceptive pill manufactured by Silesia, a subsidiary of the German pharmaceutical company, Grünenthal.
Without the option to legally terminate their pregnancies, if they wanted to, or any real accountability from the government or the drug companies, the women, represented by the Chilean sexual and reproductive rights group Corporación Miles, are preparing to file a class action lawsuit in the civil courts.
In a region where barriers to women's reproductive rights are the norm, CNN has identified a government health agency quick to shift the blame to these women, as well as a history of poor production quality and previous issues relating to oral contraceptives in Grünenthal's Chilean factory -- its gateway to Latin America.

Tabita Rojas' story

In March 2020, after discovering an ovarian cyst her physician worried could have been caused by her contraceptive implant, Rojas's doctor at her local health clinic advised she take the pill instead, prescribing Anulette CD.
Rojas didn't give the switch much thought; she had taken oral contraceptives before and agreed it made sense for her health.
Plus, after giving up her place on a forensic criminology program at 17 because she'd gotten pregnant, the now 29-year-old was once again excited about her future.
"I had to put all that aside and dedicate myself to my son," said Rojas, who had a second child two years later, and provides for her family by doing seasonal work at a grape packing plant.
By early 2020, however, things were changing. Her children -- boys now aged 11 and 9 years old, both with learning difficulties -- were more independent, and were spending more time with their father. As part of a government urbanization in her hometown Copiapó, Rojas had been given a small piece of land on which to build a house. She had been saving up money and planned to move out of the home she and her children had been sharing with three other family members.
And, she was in love.
Early on in the relationship, Rojas and her boyfriend had decided not to have children together. "It was going to be impossible to provide for someone else," she said.
But in September 2020, just five months after Rojas began taking Anulette, she found out she was pregnant again. She would later learn, after seeing it posted on Facebook, that her tablets were from a batch that had been recalled by Chile's public health authority, the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) the month before.
"I was about to finish the second [box of three prescribed] when I found out about the problem," she said. By then she was already six weeks pregnant.

On February 21, 2021, Chile's health authority wrote Tabita Rojas in response to her questions about the Anulette CD controversy. (R) The ISP's August 24, 2020 alert recalling the first batch of defective Anulette pills. Source: Tabita Rojas, ISP

Rojas' neo-natal ultrasound in September 2020 revealed she was approximately 6 weeks pregnant. Source: Tabita Rojas

The blister packs of the Anulette CD birth control pills Rojas had taken for nearly three months before finding out they had been recalled in August 2020. Source: Tabita Rojas

'I was never happy with this pregnancy'

The details may differ but similar scenarios have been playing out across Chile.
A mother of four, González, who had been on Anulette for eight months, got pregnant for the fifth time in May 2020.
She tells CNN that she took her contraceptive "religiously every morning," before adding: "Because we women set an alarm for those kinds of pills."
The news devastated her. Her personal life was complicated and her finances extremely limited after she lost the market stall where she sold second-hand clothes.
"I was never happy with this pregnancy," González said. "If you only knew all the nights I spent crying thinking that I didn't want to [have the baby]. I had no options."
Alluding to Chile's strict abortion laws that forbid a woman from terminating a pregnancy except for three reasons (if the pregnancy is a result of rape, if the fetus is incompatible with life outside the womb, or if a woman's life is at risk), González spoke about her upset and how she tried to conceal her growing tummy.
"I hid the pregnancy for a long time, so that they wouldn't ask me: 'Hey, another child, and whose is it, because you are no longer with your husband' -- and having to explain that we were separated. It was already a complicated situation for me, let alone to go around telling everyone."
Anulette CD is a 28-day combined oral contraceptive -- one of the most common forms of birth control.
It contains synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which are produced naturally by the ovaries. The hormones work to prevent ovulation -- meaning no egg is released by the ovaries -- as well as thicken the lining of the cervix to make it harder for sperm to pass through. The pill also makes the lining of the uterus thinner so that if an egg is fertilized it cannot implant and begin to grow.
Pill regimens typically involve taking 21 "active" pills that contain the hormones and seven "non-active" or "placebo" pills, to maintain a daily routine, during which time a person bleeds.

How the contraceptive pill works

The menstrual cycle is the process by which the body prepares for pregnancy every month. Controlled by multiple hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, it is the time between the first day of a period and the day before the next period begins. On average the cycle lasts 28 days, but this can vary.

The cycle involves ovulation, where an egg is released from one of the ovaries.

Pregnancy happens when sperm enters a vagina, travels through the cervix and uterus (womb) to the fallopian tubes and fertilizes a released egg. Once fertilized, the egg starts to grow, traveling to and implanting itself into the lining of the uterus.

When an egg isn't fertilised and pregnancy doesn't happen, the egg is reabsorbed into the body and the thickened lining of the uterus sheds and exits the vagina as a period.

Birth control pills work by controlling the menstrual cycle, to prevent pregnancy. There are many different types of birth control pill but one of the most common is the 28-day combined oral contraceptive. With these, you take one pill every day, at the same time, for 28 days.

The first 21 pills are active, as they contain artificial versions of estrogen and progesterone. The remaining seven pills in the packet are inactive pills that contain no hormones, often referred to as "sugar pills" or "placebos."