Police have said it is too early to know the shooter's motive, but the attacks come at a time of increased reports of anti-Asian racism and communities sounding the alarm about a wave of violent incidents. The true scope of the problem, though, is difficult to quantify because of poor data collection and low rates of reporting.
In January, President Joe Biden acknowledged the difficulties in reporting on these statistics, signing a memorandum
condemning the rise in attacks towards the Asian community and asking the attorney general to "expand collection of data and public reporting regarding hate incidents against such individuals."
Hate crime and bias incident data released by police departments and federal agencies is just a fraction of actual incidents, and deficiencies in hate-crime reporting have led organizers and activists to take it upon themselves to collect data on their own. Even then, the definitions of hate crime may differ, leaving policymakers with competing datasets that don't capture the scope of the problem.
Hate crime data is unreliable and underreported
The Justice Department and FBI are required by a 1990 federal law called the Hate Crime Statistics Act to publish an annual report on hate crime statistics. The annual report serves as the most comprehensive look at hate crime across the country.
These statistics are likely a vast undercount because law enforcement agencies are not required to submit their data to the FBI for their annual crime report. There are more than 18,000 agencies in the United States and more than 3,000 did not submit their crime statistics in 2019. Of the almost 16,000 agencies that did submit data, about 1 in 7 reported any instances of a hate crime.
"Some of those reports are probably true zeroes, but it's really unlikely that all of those jurisdictions had zero hate crimes," said Brendan Lantz, a criminology professor at Florida State University who researches hate and bias crimes.
Without dedicated resources, law enforcement agencies might not be train