(CNN)Adolescence is fraught with stressful changes, and the developing body can be one of those challenges, especially if a teen's body doesn't meet society's — or that teen's — standards.
Teens with negative body image may experience depression as adults, study finds
Negative body image can threaten mental health, according to new research that found teenagers who were dissatisfied with their bodies tended to experience depression as adults.
Previous research has shown that up to 61% of adolescents have reported experiencing body dissatisfaction to some extent, cited a study published Monday in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, documenting a trend increasing alongside the social media boom.
Despite the connection between negative body image and eating disorders, other risky health behaviors and poor mental health, "body dissatisfaction is not widely viewed as a concern" in the public health field, the study authors said.
Few children struggle with depression, but the likelihood grows as children grow — so the authors studied how depression might contribute to the body image of adolescents.
Recent studies have also been predominantly focused on the United States, so the researchers turned their attention toward United Kingdom-based teens, most of whom were White.
When the study participants were 14, on a five-point scale (from extremely satisfied to extremely dissatisfied) they rated their satisfaction with their weight, figure, body build or breasts, stomach, waist, thighs, butt, hips, legs, face and hair. When the participants were about 18, a nurse assessed their depression symptoms and severity.
Both teenage girls and boys were mildly satisfied with their bodies overall, but girls tended to be more dissatisfied than boys. "Females tended to be dissatisfied with their thighs, stomach and weight and satisfied with their hair and hips," the authors said. "For males, the body parts associated with more dissatisfaction were body build, stomach and hips."
Weight and figure were the most common areas of distress: At 14, 32% of girls and 14% of boys were dissatisfied with their weight. More than 27% of girls and nearly 14% of boys were unhappy with their figure. Girls who were discontent with their bodies at 14 had mild, moderate and severe depressive episodes at 18, while boys had mild and/or moderate depressive episodes. The findings contrast the ideas that negative body image is exclusive to high body mass index and girls and women.
"Body image encompasses feelings and thoughts about many aspects of appearance beyond weight," said the study's first author Anna Bornioli, a senior researcher in transport and urban economics at the Erasmus Centre for Urban, Port and Transport Economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam, via email.
"Whilst someone may be deemed traditionally attractive, they can still feel inadequate and uncomfortable with their body because they do not match up to appearance ideals."
"Research in the past focused almost exclusively on thinness. When boys and men were found to not want to be thinner, they were assumed to not have body image problems," said Mike C. Parent, a psychologist and assistant professor in the department of educational psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, via email.
"We now know that boys and men don't usually want to be thinner—they want to be more muscular," said Parent, who wasn't involved in the study. "The present study addresses this somewhat by looking at satisfaction with body parts, not a desire to be thinner, but we can see remnants of the history of body image research emphasizing the experience of girls and women in the body satisfaction items (e.g., hips and thighs are mentioned, but not abs and pecs)."
Even though times have changed, "females are taught that there's a charge around their body, meaning that the more they look like the ideal, the better their life will be," said Ann Kearney-Cooke, a psychologist and author of "Change Your Mind, Change Your Body: Feeling Good About Your Body and Self After 40."