Why the noose is such a potent symbol of hate

A member of the Ku Klux Klan holds a noose out a car window during a demonstration in 1939 in Miami.

(CNN)A noose. It's simply the loop at the end of a rope, under a running knot, which tightens as it's pulled. And yet it has the power to spur shivers of terror.

In America, the hangman's noose has come to symbolize a deplorable act of brutality, along with unbound fear and hatred towards African Americans. It's a reminder of America's dark history of racial violence -- a history that NASCAR driver Bubba Wallace and others will tell you in 2020 doesn't feel very distant at all.
"The noose always means much more than a knot in a rope," said Jack Shuler, an associate professor at Denison University and author of "The Thirteenth Turn: A History of the Noose."
      "The noose was a tool used to kill people and, therefore, it is a threat -- it is violent speech," Shuler added. The noose has become the new burning cross."
        Here's why a noose has the power to frighten people -- and how it's still being used today as a symbol of hate.

          It's a symbol of America's history of lynchings

          The NAACP estimates that more than 4,700 people were lynched in the US between 1882 and 1968, although Shuler believes the number is probably much higher. Almost 73% of them were Black.
          A flag announcing a lynching is flown from the window of NAACP headquarters in 1936 in New York City.
          Most of the racial lynchings took place in the South, where many whites felt threatened by Black peoples' newfound freedoms and sought to intimidate and control them. Black men were strung up from trees, beaten to death or otherwise lynched for any number of alleged minor crimes.
          These lynchings weren't even considered murders, according to Shuler.
          "Lynching is not the same as private murder. It means an extrajudicial killing for an alleged crime by three or more persons," Shuler told CNN. "There must be some evidence that a community supported the act -- either actively or through their collective inaction."
          Hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan were behind many of the killings. But in some places, entire communities would gather to watch Blacks being tortured and hanged, Shuler said.
          A doll hangs from a noose outside a dorm window on the campus of Mississippi State University in 1962 -- an apparent protest against James Meredith, the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi.
          "Though most often associated with being hanged by a noose, lynching also involved victims being tortured to death, burned alive, or riddled with bullet holes," he said. "Typically, the victim was hanged and then the body was mutilated."
          Lynchings in the US subsided by the late 1960s. But as a vestige of that shameful era, the noose lives on.

          People understand exactly what it means

          The intention behind using a noose is crystal clear.
          "If you knew anything about the history of American lynching," Shuler said, "then you wouldn't tie that knot without doing so for the expressed person of threatening another person."
          In recent years, nooses have been found hanging outside the National Museum of African-American History and Culture in Washington, on college campuses and on a fence at an Oakland, California, elementary school.
          And whether they realize it or not, every time a person ties a noose and hangs it they are sending a message.
          These photos of slain Black figures were found hanging from nooses in Milwaukee.
          "People who make these nooses know what it represents because it's historical," said Darryl "King Rick" Farmer II, leader of the Black Panthers of Milwaukee, where photos of six slain Black figures were found hung by nooses in a park over the weekend.
          "Everyone knows what a hangman's noose represents, especially to the African American