(CNN)When schools shut down because of the coronavirus, some parents of children with ADHD found themselves in a stressful predicament.
Homeschooling is hard for any parent who's never done so before, but parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder face special challenges.
It means parents who are likely ill-equipped are dealing with learning and behavioral differences that their children's school professionals may have been trained to manage.
As the school year comes to an end for many students around the world, there are lessons to be learned as parents consider virtual summer school or camps and anticipate virtual school in the fall.
A neurodevelopmental disorder commonly diagnosed in childhood that often lasts into adulthood, ADHD stems from underdeveloped or impaired executive function and self-regulation skills, according to Harvard University's Center on the Developing Child. Those skills help us to plan, focus attention, remember instructions and multitask.
Children may have trouble paying attention, controlling their impulses or may be overly active.
These symptoms allow children to do well in some environments — fast-paced or creative — but they can also be severe and cause difficulties at home or school and with friends. That's why children with ADHD need a school environment that helps them stay on track, maintain a structure and be supported by peers and teachers.
The sudden switch to virtual learning has greatly upset this routine.
Leslie Hall of Charlotte, North Carolina, said her sixth grader's shift to virtual learning was tough at first. The constant influx of assignment notifications across several platforms distracted her son, Sam.
"The first week I could barely keep up," she said. "He'd be working on a science assignment and the social studies teacher would send a text with her assignment so naturally he'd jump to that. Then another teacher would send an assignment and he'd jump to that. For a kid who likes order, it led to a lot of frustration."
Tiffany Johnson of Fort Worth, Texas, said her eighth grader is finally settling into virtual learning after weeks of volatile challenges.
Johnson witnessed her son having small meltdowns over technological difficulties, misunderstanding assignments and group projects with classmates who didn't understand him.
She's used to working from home, but sometimes she has had to sit with her son all day to help him manage online school. She's also dealing with her own depression and anxiety on top of her son's issues.
"The stress of a global pandemic, a new day to day that changes week to week, technology challenges and frustrations," she said, "some days it's really hard because if I'm not level, he won't be level," Johnson said.
Jeanine Kalulu of Vista, California, helps her grandson with his schoolwork while she works from home and her daughter, who is an essential worker, works elsewhere.
They've faced numerous obstacles, including equipment and technological issues, restlessness and distraction. The in-class aide and one-on-one time he had didn't transfer to a virtual medium, and the classes weren't engaging to him.
"He did get upset one time because he didn't want to do the lesson, and he said it's boring," Kalulu said. "We were doing [the lesson] on the phone at that time because he couldn't get it on the laptop. So he threw the phone down."
Now, he does only the paper assignments, mainly because his school hasn't yet provided him with a laptop and so he can't access the online lessons.
There are ways parents can help their kids thrive in remote learning, balance homeschooling with a neurodivergent child while working from home and work through frustrations together.
Benefits of a school structure
Children with ADHD benefit from the structure of traditional school settings, said Robin Nordmeyer, co-founder and managing director of the Center for Living Well with ADHD-Minnesota, an ADHD coaching group serving all ages.
A traditional school allows a student to show up and go through the motions of a class structure. The school bell's ring helps signal a clear-cut transition between classes, and between school and home life. The consistent, predictable routine helps some students stay on track.
Children with ADHD also draw from the community and connection schools can provide, complete with peers and educators who model behavior, offer emotional support and champion the educational or social goals of the student.
"What's happened with Covid-19 is we've shifted from having that infrastructure and support from school," Nordmeyer said. "And parents have had to pick up a lot of the things that can't be provided with virtual learning. And maybe they don't know how best to help them because they haven't been trained in that particular area of need."
"Parents are having to take on that responsibility as well, while they still have their own routines and jobs to get through during the day," said Anabelle Morgan, head of school at Commonwealth Academy in Alexandria, Virginia, a day school for students with learning differences or ADHD challenges. "So that makes it twice as hard."
Mimic the school environment
Children with ADHD don't struggle with paying attention in general as much as they struggle with concentrating and sustaining attention on the right things, Nordmeyer said.
"When a child is struggling from inattention," she added, "anything around them in their environment can grab their attention in the moment, take them offtrack and get them caught up in something else that's not related to the goal of the moment.
"[They] might start off great paying attention, but then our brains wear out a bit. [They] use up that dopamine or that neurotransmitter availability and it's just hard to focus, concentrate and pay attention to what [they're] trying to do."