Anstey, a middle school history teacher, lives in a valley between two mountains, where the only available home internet option is a satellite connection. Her emails can take 30 seconds to load, only to quit mid-message. She can't even open files on Google Drive, let alone upload lesson modules or get on a Zoom call with colleagues.
"You just have to plan," Anstey said. "It's not a Monday through Friday job anymore."
So Anstey's new office is in her car in the corner of the parking lot where the WiFi signal is strongest. She comes here when she needs to upload instructional videos, answer emails from students and parents or participate in the occasional video conferencing call. It's not ideal, she says, but using her slow internet at home is even more frustrating.
Anstey's predicament casts a new light on a longstanding digital divide that is being made even starker by the coronavirus pandemic.
More than 18 million Americans -- about 5.6 percent of the US population -- lack access to high-speed internet, according to the Federal Communications Commission
. (Many technology experts dispute the agency's figures -- the company BroadbandNow
says the real number is more than double that.)
Pockets of poor connectivity can be found in both small towns and cities, particularly in low-income urban areas
. But those living in rural areas and tribal lands
are especially likely
to have slower speeds, spottier coverage
and fewer internet service providers to choose from -- forcing people like Anstey to travel to cafes, libraries and parking lots for a reliable connection.
And now that the pandemic
is demanding most Americans do their jobs, complete schoolwork
and access healthcare remotely
, experts say the internet-access problem
has become untenable.
"We are the country that created the internet. We think of ourselves as the most affluent nation on Earth," said Christopher Mitchell, director of the Community Broadband Networks Initiative at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance. "We should be embarrassed that millions of people have to drive to a closed library or a fast food restaurant in order to do their jobs or do their homework."
For some people, the big issue is slow speeds
Building broadband networks, the best of which require installing fiber-optic cables underground, is expensive regardless of the locale, said Mitchell, whose organization advocates for local solutions in improving broadband infrastructure.
But fewer people in rural areas means fewer potential customers, giving publicly traded companies a lower return on investment. With less incentive to improve infrastructure and scarce competition, these companies leave many rural residents with few, and outdated, options.
Addie Maiden, a seventh grade special-needs teacher in Dahlonega, Georgia, has DSL internet from a major telecoms company -- the only provider available where she lives, she says. While the internet at home has always been slow, now she and her three sons -- ages 15, 13 and 5 -- are having to share already limited bandwidth as they try to work and learn from home.
Recently, the Maidens' internet service provider has been offering a faster, hybrid fiber-DSL connection in Dahlonega, but the family has the misfortune of living about 100 yards outside the eligible area. That means they have no choice but to continue using DSL.
When internet service relies on DSL networks, there are bound to be problems, said Chip Strange, chief strategy officer at Ookla, the company behind Speedtest.net
DSL, which transmits data over copper telephone lines, is a step above dial-up internet, though it's still slower than other high-speed options
such as cable and fiber-optic internet. For many rural households that use DSL, the speeds don't even qualify as broadband.
The FCC defines high-speed internet
as having minimum speeds of 25 megabits per second (Mbps) for downloads and 3 mbps for uploads. To put that into context, it takes a minimum of 1 Mbps to check email and social media, 3-4 Mbps to watch Netflix in standard definition and 25 Mbps to work from home, per the FCC's gu