Snake venom can now be made in a lab and that could save many lives

Scientists at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's Centre of Snakebite Research and Interventions, extract a snake's venom

(CNN)If you're unlucky enough to have a poisonous snake sink its fangs into you, your best hope is an antivenom, which has been made in the same way since Victorian times.

It involves milking snake venom by hand and injecting it into horses or other animals in small doses to evoke an immune response. The animal's blood is drawn and purified to obtain antibodies that act against the venom.
Producing antivenom in this way can get messy, not to mention dangerous. The process is error prone, laborious and the finished serum can result in serious side effects.
Experts have long called for better ways to treat snake bites, which kill some 200 people a day.
    Now -- finally -- scientists are applying stem cell research and genome mapping to this long-ignored field of research. They hope it will bring antivenom production into the 21st Century and ultimately save thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of lives each year.
    Researchers in the Netherlands have created venom-producing glands from the Cape Coral Snake and eight other snake species in the lab, using stem cells. The toxins produced by the miniature 3-D replicas of snake glands are all but identical to the snake's venom, the team announced Thursday.
    In a parallel breakthrough, scientists in India have sequenced the genome of the Indian cobra, one of the country's "big four" snakes that are responsible for most of the 50,000 snakebite deaths India sees a year.
    "They've really moved the game on," said Nick Cammack, head of the snakebite team at UK medical research charity Wellcome. "These are massive developments because it's bringing 2020 science into a field that's been neglected."

    From cancer to snake venom

    Hans Clevers, the principal investigator at the Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research in Utrecht, never expected to be using his lab to make snake venom.
    A decade ago, he invented the technique to make human organoids -- miniature organs made from the stem cells of individual patients. They've allowed doctors to test the specific effects of drugs safely outside the body, something that has revolutionized and personalized areas such as cancer treatment.
    The scientists have reproduced the venom gland of the Cape coral snake, seen here in the Olomouc Zoo, Czech Republic, on May 11, 2018.
    So why did he decide to culture a snake venom gland?
    Clevers said it was essentially a whim of three PhD students working in his lab who'd grown bored of reproducing mouse and human kidneys, livers and guts. "I think they sat down and asked themselves what is the most iconic animal we can culture? Not human or mouse. They said it's got to be the snake. The snake venom gland."
    "They assumed that snakes would have stem cells the same way mice and humans have stems cells but nobody had ever investigated this," said Clevers.
    After sourcing some fertilized snake eggs from a dealer, the researchers found they were able to take a tiny chunk of snake tissue, containing stem cells, and nurture it in a dish with the same growth factor they used for human organoids -- albeit at a lower temperature -- to create the venom glands. And they found that these snake organoids -- tiny balls just one millimeter wide -- produced the same toxins as the snake venom.
    The snake venom gland organoids as seen under a microscope./
    "Open them up and you have a lot of venom. As far as we can tell, it's identical. We've compared it directly to the venom from the same species of snake and we find the exact same components," said Clevers, who was an author of the paper that published in the journal Cell last week.
    The team compared their lab-made venom with the real thing at the genetic level and in terms of function, finding that muscle cells stopped firing when exposed to their synthetic venom.
    A venomous spectacled cobra, also known as Indian cobra (Naja Naja) or white cobra, is seen near a painting inside its enclosure at the Kamla Nehru Zoological Garden in Ahmedabad on January 30, 2019.

    Cells and DNA, not horses

    The current antivenoms available to us, produced in horses not humans, trigger relatively high rates of adverse reactions, which