Brazil’s Amazon rainforest is burning, with more than one-and-a-half soccer fields worth of rainforest destroyed every minute of every day, according to the country’s space research center.
While the country’s farmers and cattle ranchers have long used slash-and-burn techniques – when blazes clear land to ready it for other purposes – an 80% rise in deforestation since last year signals a disturbing shift in a political ethos. Environmental activists attribute that to one big change: The election of the country’s far-right president Jair Bolsonaro.
Responding to international condemnation of the rise in recorded fires in the Amazon, Bolsonaro said that “protecting the forest is our duty, acting to combat illegal deforestation and any other criminal activities that put our Amazon at risk.” He added that his military public service background contributed to his “deep love and respect” for the rainforest.
But a quick look at the president’s economic and environmental policies counter that narrative, with many of his critics arguing that that they have not only abetted this environmental disaster but, in fact, set the stage for it.
Here’s a look at how Brazil got here.
Bolsonaro’s rise to power marked one of the most polarizing and violent political campaigns in Brazil’s history, amid a prolonged recession, rising crime rates and widespread corruption scandals in the world’s fourth-largest democracy.
Capitalizing on the economic concerns of the electorate on the campaign trial, Bolsonaro promised to restore the economy by exploring the Amazon’s economic potential.
Between 2004 and 2012, deforestation fell dramatically, but in recent years it has been increasing, and the powerful agricultural lobby in the Brazilian congress has been pushing for more development of the forest.
That agricultural lobby endorsed Bolsonaro during his election campaign.
As president-elect, Bolsonaro said that farmers are excessively fined for environmental damage, and also proposed merging Brazil’s environment and agriculture ministries – an idea he has since shelved.
While supporters rejoiced in his October 2018 victory win, opponents were quick to voice concerns that his victory could threaten human rights and ecological preservation.
Laying the foundation
Shortly after taking office, Bolsonaro signed an executive order giving the Agricultural Ministry responsibility for certifying indigenous lands as protected territories.
About 13% of Brazil is legally designated as indigenous land, most of which is in the Amazon and reserved for the country’s 900,000 indigenous people (less than 0.5% of the population).
Indigenous groups said the president’s order would lead to “an increase in deforestation and violence against indigenous people.”