CNN PHOTO ILLUSTRATION/GETTY IMAGES
Now playing
01:39
Trump isn't the first to ask NATO to pay more
CNN
Now playing
02:10
Fauci: We'll get Johnson and Johnson vaccine back 'in some manner'
WTMJ
Now playing
01:45
3 killed in Kenosha, Wisconsin, tavern shooting
Indianapolis shooting victims family 04172021
CNN
Indianapolis shooting victims family 04172021
Now playing
03:22
'Completely devastating': Family of Indianapolis shooting victims speak out
WINDSOR, ENGLAND - APRIL 17: The Duke of Edinburgh's coffin, covered with His Royal Highness's Personal Standard is carried to the purpose built Land Rover during the funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Windsor Castle on April 17, 2021 in Windsor, England. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born 10 June 1921, in Greece. He served in the British Royal Navy and fought in WWII. He married the then Princess Elizabeth on 20 November 1947 and was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich by King VI. He served as Prince Consort to Queen Elizabeth II until his death on April 9 2021, months short of his 100th birthday. His funeral takes place today at Windsor Castle with only 30 guests invited due to Coronavirus pandemic restrictions. (Photo by Adrian Dennis/WPA Pool/Getty Images)
Adrian Dennis/WPA Pool/Getty Images
WINDSOR, ENGLAND - APRIL 17: The Duke of Edinburgh's coffin, covered with His Royal Highness's Personal Standard is carried to the purpose built Land Rover during the funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Windsor Castle on April 17, 2021 in Windsor, England. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born 10 June 1921, in Greece. He served in the British Royal Navy and fought in WWII. He married the then Princess Elizabeth on 20 November 1947 and was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich by King VI. He served as Prince Consort to Queen Elizabeth II until his death on April 9 2021, months short of his 100th birthday. His funeral takes place today at Windsor Castle with only 30 guests invited due to Coronavirus pandemic restrictions. (Photo by Adrian Dennis/WPA Pool/Getty Images)
Now playing
02:29
See memorable moments from Prince Philip's funeral
Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny delivers a speech during a demonstration in Moscow on September 29, 2019. - Thousands gathered in Moscow for a demonstration demanding the release of the opposition protesters prosecuted in recent months. Police estimated a turnout of 20,000 people at the Sakharov Avenue in central Moscow about half an hour after the start of the protest, which was authorised. The demonstrators chanted "let them go" and brandished placards demanding a halt to "repressions" of opposition protesters. (Photo by Yuri KADOBNOV / AFP) (Photo by YURI KADOBNOV/AFP via Getty Images)
YURI KADOBNOV/AFP/Getty Images
Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny delivers a speech during a demonstration in Moscow on September 29, 2019. - Thousands gathered in Moscow for a demonstration demanding the release of the opposition protesters prosecuted in recent months. Police estimated a turnout of 20,000 people at the Sakharov Avenue in central Moscow about half an hour after the start of the protest, which was authorised. The demonstrators chanted "let them go" and brandished placards demanding a halt to "repressions" of opposition protesters. (Photo by Yuri KADOBNOV / AFP) (Photo by YURI KADOBNOV/AFP via Getty Images)
Now playing
02:09
Alexey Navalny 'close to death,' press secretary says
Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA) speaks during a press conference outside the U.S. Capitol on February 5, 2021 in Washington, DC. The House voted 230 to 199 on Friday evening to remove Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA) from committee assignments over her remarks about QAnon and other conspiracy theories.
Drew Angerer/Getty Images
Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA) speaks during a press conference outside the U.S. Capitol on February 5, 2021 in Washington, DC. The House voted 230 to 199 on Friday evening to remove Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA) from committee assignments over her remarks about QAnon and other conspiracy theories.
Now playing
03:20
Marjorie Taylor Greene lashes out at media after backlash over controversial caucus
Getty Images
Now playing
03:00
The end of an era has arrived in Cuba
WISH
Now playing
02:26
Police identify FedEx facility gunman as former employee
Biden speaks from the Treaty Room in the White House on April 14, 2021 in Washington, DC.
Andrew Harnik/Pool/Getty Images
Biden speaks from the Treaty Room in the White House on April 14, 2021 in Washington, DC.
Now playing
02:44
'National embarrassment': Biden reacts to mass shootings
Two military aircraft fly over the White House on April 16, 2021 in Washington, DC. The US Air Force F-22 fighter aircraft flew over Washington as part of the World War I memorial dedication ceremony.
Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images
Two military aircraft fly over the White House on April 16, 2021 in Washington, DC. The US Air Force F-22 fighter aircraft flew over Washington as part of the World War I memorial dedication ceremony.
Now playing
00:52
Watch military flyover interrupt a White House briefing
Shadae McCallum
Now playing
02:30
Soldier arrested after video shows him pushing a Black man
MOSCOW, RUSSIA - APRIL 15:  Russian President Vladimir Putin (L) talks to talks to Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov during a meeting with Uzbekistan President Islam Karimov in the Kremlin on April 15, 2013 in in Moscow, Russia. Karimov is on a state visit to Russia. (Photo by Sasha Mordovets/Getty Images)
Sasha Mordovets/Getty Images
MOSCOW, RUSSIA - APRIL 15: Russian President Vladimir Putin (L) talks to talks to Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov during a meeting with Uzbekistan President Islam Karimov in the Kremlin on April 15, 2013 in in Moscow, Russia. Karimov is on a state visit to Russia. (Photo by Sasha Mordovets/Getty Images)
Now playing
02:07
Russia to expel 10 US diplomats in 'tit-for-tat response' to Biden sanctions
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 13: Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D-NM) speaks during a news conference on immigration to condemn the Trump Administration's "zero tolerance" immigration policy, outside the US Capitol on June 13, 2018 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Toya Sarno Jordan/Getty Images)
Toya Sarno Jordan/Getty Images
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 13: Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D-NM) speaks during a news conference on immigration to condemn the Trump Administration's "zero tolerance" immigration policy, outside the US Capitol on June 13, 2018 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Toya Sarno Jordan/Getty Images)
Now playing
02:39
Governor settles with former campaign staffer who accused her of sexual mistreatment
Former Minneapolis Police officer Derek Chauvin chooses not to testify at his trial on April 15. Sitting to his left is defense attorney Eric Nelson.
Pool
Former Minneapolis Police officer Derek Chauvin chooses not to testify at his trial on April 15. Sitting to his left is defense attorney Eric Nelson.
Now playing
02:10
Derek Chauvin invokes 5th Amendment right at trial
Rep. Matt Gaetz, R-Fla., questions witnesses during a House Armed Services Committee hearing on Capitol Hill, Wednesday, April 14, 2021, in Washington.
Manuel Balce Ceneta/AP
Rep. Matt Gaetz, R-Fla., questions witnesses during a House Armed Services Committee hearing on Capitol Hill, Wednesday, April 14, 2021, in Washington.
Now playing
02:59
Women detail late-night parties with Gaetz
Now playing
00:00
Fauci fires back at Rep. Jim Jordan during heated exchange
(CNN) —  

The world saw a military spending boom in 2018, driven largely by the United States and China, which now account for almost half of the world’s military expenditure, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said in a new report.

Global spending on defense hit $1.82 trillion in 2018, up 2.6% on the previous year and the highest figure since 1988, the first year that reliable global data was available, according to the Swedish think tank.

The United States – which retains its title as the world’s biggest military spender – raised its spending for the first time in seven years to $649 billion in 2018. The US spent almost as much on defense in 2018 as the next eight countries on the list combined, the report said.

“They are in the midst of implementing a military modernization program over the next 20 to 25 years, which some analysts say will cost the US $1.8 trillion,” Nan Tian, a researcher for the SIPRI Arms and Military Expenditure Program, told CNN.

He said the modernization program, which was agreed upon in the final year of the Obama administration, “will continue [military spending] increases in the US in the coming years,” Tian added.

China, the world’s second largest spender, increased its spending by 5% to $250 billion in 2018 – the 24th consecutive year of rising Chinese military expenditure, SIPRI wrote. China accounted for 14% of global defense expenditures last year, the report said.

Saudi Arabia ($67.6 billion), India ($66.5 billion), France ($63.8 billion), Russia ($61.4 billion) and the UK ($50 billion) were among the world’s biggest military spenders, according to SIPRI data.

Geopolitical tensions

Tensions between Asian countries, as well US and China’s contest for primacy, were “major drivers” for the growth in military spending in Asia and Oceania, SIPRI added.

“At $507 billion, military spending in the region accounted for 28% of the global total in 2018,” SIPRI wrote.

In 2018, India increased spending by 3.1% to $66.5 billion and its longtime rival Pakistan increased spending by 11% to $11.4 billion.

And in spite of Russian military spending falling in the last couple years, “growing perceptions of a threat” from Russia has precipitated large increases in military spending in several Central and Eastern European countries.

“Spending by Poland rose by 8.9% in 2018 to $11.6 billion, while Ukraine’s spending was up by 21% to $4.8 billion. Spending by Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania also grew (ranging from 18% to 24%) in 2018,” the report said.

As for Western Europe, “there has been talks of increasing spending in line with NATO but we have not seen it in evidence,” Tian said of pressure by the Trump administration on a number of NATO allies to increase defense spending to the recommended target of 2% of GDP.

“If there is any country that is pushing [to get to a] 2% share of GDP, it is Germany,” Tian said. Germany spent 1.2% of its GDP on defense in 2018 and previously pledged to increase spending to 1.5% of GDP by 2024.

Military spending increased by 3.1% in South America, but fell by 8.4% in Africa and by 1.9% in Middle Eastern countries for which data was available, the report said.

“The decrease in the Middle East has to do with Saudi Arabia,” Tian said, which saw cuts due to “debt and overspending.”