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(CNN) —  

Prompted by an unprecedented spike in the use of e-cigarettes among teens, the US surgeon general issued a call to action for parents, teachers and health professionals about the negative health consequences of e-cigarettes at a news conference Tuesday.

Currently, 1 in 5 high school students uses e-cigarettes, Dr. Jerome Adams said.

“Our youth today recognize that cigarettes are not cool and not safe,” Adams said. However, they mistakenly believe e-cigarettes are “cool” and “safe,” he added.

“Studies show youth like my son [who is 14] have no clue what’s in these products,” Adams said. Meanwhile, a third of kids who have used e-cigs have used marijuana in them.

“The bottom line,” according to Alex Azar, the US secretary of health and human services, is that “in the datasets we use, we have never seen use of any substance rise this rapidly.”

The percentage of high school-age children reporting past 30-day use of e-cigarettes rose by more than 75% between 2017 and 2018, while use among middle school-age kids increased nearly 50%, the National Youth Tobacco Survey showed. Meanwhile, the National Institutes of Health’s Monitoring the Future survey, released Monday, recorded a single year surge with more than 37% of 12th graders reporting use in the past year compared to nearly 28% in 2017.

The skyrocketing rise in e-cigarettes comes at a time when there are “encouraging signs elsewhere” – namely, the fact that alcohol use, tobacco use and opioid use among youth have declined, Azar said.

However, the epidemic of vaping could contribute to “a whole generation addicted to nicotine,” he said noting that no amount of nicotine is safe.

“I’m talking about my own kids,” Adams said. “My 14, 13 and 9-year-olds are all familiar to these products since elementary school.”

Misconceptions and myths surrounding e-cigarettes contribute to the epidemic, he added. Meanwhile, parents do not even know what signs to look for or what questions to ask their kids.

Which is why Adams took the step of issuing an advisory. It’s the second time he’s taken such action. In April, he issued an advisory to get more Americans to carry the opioid overdose antidote naloxone.

E-cigarettes are not harmless

Like regular cigarettes, most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, an addictive drug that harms the developing brains of teens. Because the brain continues to develop until about age 25, nicotine’s negative health effects include damage to learning, memory and attention abilities. Add to that, teens who use nicotine are at increased risk for addiction to other drugs.

“The number one reason teens say they use these products is because they say they have flavors in them,” said Adams, who noted that many e-cigarettes come in kid-friendly flavors.

Sarah Ryan, a high school senior from Holbrook, Massachusetts, who also spoke at the news conference, said there are over 8,000 flavors. Some “taste like Sour Patch Kids,” she said. The flavors hide the nicotine, which most kids don’t even know is there, she added.

Some of the chemicals used to make certain flavors may also pose health risks, according to Adams. In addition to nicotine, the vapor from e-cigs may include other harmful substances, including heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and ultrafine particles that can be inhaled deeply into the lungs.

While e-cigarettes may contain less harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, Adams cautioned, “Less harm does not mean harmless.”

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