Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded for pioneering work in evolutionary science

An illustration of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureates.

(CNN)The 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Frances H. Arnold and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter on Wednesday for their work harnessing the power of evolution to develop new proteins used in drugs and medical treatments.

In announcing the award, the Royal Swedish Academy said that this year's prize "awards a revolution based on evolution," and goes to scientists who "applied the principles of Darwin in the test tube."
The methods developed by the laureates have been put to work to create new enzymes and antibodies used in promoting a greener chemicals industry, mitigating disease and saving lives.
Arnold, of the California Institute of Technology, was recognized for performing the first-ever "directed evolution" of enzymes -- proteins that catalyze chemical reactions -- to see if they could be tailored to work differently, for example in new environments.
    Arnold directed an enzyme's evolution by introducing genetic mutations to create multiple variants of a chosen enzyme. She would then see the effect each mutation had and choose the variants that could prove to be useful, such as one that could operate in a solvent, rather than a water-based environment.
    Her methods are now routinely used to develop new catalysts, in turn used for "more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, and the production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector."
    The American scientist and engineer becomes only the fifth woman ever to have won the prize, following Ada Yonath in 2009, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 1964, Irène Joliot-Curie in 1935, and her mother, Marie Curie, in 1911.