"But they did not believe the women, because their words seemed to them like nonsense."
-- Luke 24:11
The men refused to listen to her story. She was publicly smeared as a whore. And when she emerged as a celebrated advocate, powerful men tried to silence her because she threatened their status.
Nevertheless she persisted.
The woman we're talking about, though, is not a leader in the #MeToo movement -- the viral campaign raising awareness about sexual assault and harassment against women. She is Mary Magdalene, the first person Jesus appeared to after his resurrection, according to the New Testament, and the first person to preach the good news that he had been raised from the dead.
For billions of Christians around the world, Easter Sunday is a celebration of a risen savior. Yet what happened to Mary Magdalene shows that Easter can also be seen as something else -- a #MeToo moment, some pastors and biblical scholars say.
They say Easter is also a story about how charismatic female leaders such as Mary Magdalene -- and even Jesus himself -- were victimized by some of the same behavior that sparked the #MeToo movement: the sexually predatory behavior of men, the intimidation of women and an orchestrated attempt to silence women who drew too much attention when they spoke up.
One of the most obvious links between Easter and #MeToo, some say, is the way Mary Magdalene has been slut-shamed.
She has been falsely portrayed in books and films as a penitent prostitute rather than what she really was, says Claire L. Sahlin: "The foremost witness of the resurrection and a visionary leader of the early Christian movement."
"The #MeToo movement recognizes that men in authority used their power to sexually abuse women and silence their voices," says Sahlin, an associate dean and professor of multicultural women's and gender studies at Texas Woman's University.
"Mary Magdalene also was a victim of men in authority who used their power to silence her voice.''
Is it possible to see the Easter story through the lens of the #MeToo movement, or are some pastors and theologians twisting the central story of Christianity to fit a "feminist ideology"?
One New Testament scholar captured the tension between interpreting the Bible and seeing it through a modern lens when he wrote about a push to make biblical translations more gender-inclusive.
"Should we refrain from calling God our Father because some people have had sinful, oppressive fathers?" asked Vern S. Poythress, a professor of New Testament interpretation at Westminster Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania.
"Should we stop using 'He' to refer to God because some people will think that God is literally of the male sex? If we allow these concessions, will not others enter from the wings, seducing us into an indefinite series of mollifications of the Bible for the sake of not 'unnecessarily' offending modern readers?"
Others scholars, though, say they're not inventing scripture. They point to numerous passages in the Easter story and throughout the New Testament as evidence of four ways they say Easter became a #MeToo moment:
The men didn't listen to 'hysterical' women
Credible witnesses -- it's what the resurrection stories hinge on, and it's what the #MeToo movement needed to gain traction. In both cases, women are delivering shocking revelations to a skeptical public. The Apostle Paul captured this challenge when he used the Greek word for scandal -- skandalon -- to describe how the Easter message must have sounded to non-Christians.
And like many scandals, people have trouble believing the women, some biblical scholars say.
Skepticism of women was literally enshrined in the law; a woman's testimony didn't count in a Jewish court during Jesus' time, scholars say.
"In the ancient world, women were thought to be credulous and gullible, especially in religious matters," says Richard Bauckham, a theologian and author of "Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony."
"In the second century, the pagan intellectual Celsus, who wrote a book against Christianity, says of the resurrection: 'Who saw him -- Just a poor fisherman and a hysterical woman.' "
This sexist subtext can even be seen in the biblical accounts of Jesus' resurrection, since the traditional Easter story is told in the Gospels through the eyes of men.
If Easter were an action movie, the men would have the juiciest parts. There's the crafty villain Judas, who betrayed Jesus for a payday; the blustering Peter, whose bravado quickly melted when Jesus got arrested; and "Doubting Thomas," who spoke for so many when he said he needed proof before he believed.
But a closer look shows that women are the real action "sheroes," some pastors and scholars say.
They were the ones who stood by a tormented Jesus hanging on a cross when the men had long fled in fear. And they were the ones Jesus first appeared to, not the men, all four Gospel accounts say.
"They were the last at the cross and the first to get the good news," says Karla D. Zazueta, a discipleship leader at Stonebriar Community Church in Frisco, Texas, and a contributor to an anthology entitled, "Vindicating the Vixens: Revisiting Sexualized, Vilified, and Marginalized Women of the Bible."
Yet they were the last ones the men believed, the Gospels make clear.
The Gospel accounts show that the men initially ignored the women's declaration of a risen Jesus because, according to the Gospel of Luke, "their words seemed like nonsense."
Some of the stories even take on the undertone of dark comedy.
The women tell a meeting of the disciples that Jesus has risen and the men ignore them. Men make the same declaration later and they are literally worshipped as saints.
Jesus, though, didn't have a problem sharing the stage with women, according to New Testament accounts.
The Gospels are full of Jesus treating women in a way that would have scandalized his contemporaries. They were his travel companions and primary financial backers. Consider an obscure passage in Luke 8:1-4. It says Jesus and his 12 disciples were accompanied by women: Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna "and many others."
"These women were helping to support them out of their own means," Luke says of the women.
A rabbi who traveled with and treated women as spiritual equals was unusual for a time when they were treated like second-class citizens, says Zazueta.
"He had a traveling seminary and he mentored women just as closely as his male disciples," she says. "They were worthy of discipleship. You have this picture of Jesus traveling with a coed seminary that was supported by females with men and women learning and working together. He wasn't following the rules of his time."
The Easter story itself doesn't follow the rules of its time, Zazueta says. The Gospels make women the most important witnesses to the resurrection at a time when women were literally and legally ignored.
"It's a huge deal because it also gives credibility to the Gospel narrative," Zazueta says. "No one who invented such a story would have invented a woman as a witness."
They pushed women into the shadows
Here's another peculiar feature of the Easter stories: They name many of the women who found the empty tomb of Jesus. In addition to Mary Magdalene, they name Joanna; Salome; Mary, the mother of James; "and the others with them."
Naming women isn't a feature of the New Testament, says Sahlin, the Texas Woman's University professor.
"Women's roles have been downplayed in the New Testament," she says. "When women are mentioned, they are often not named."