She was 44.
"The Cosby Family thanks many people for their prayers for their beloved and beautiful Ensa," read a statement from the family obtained by CNN.
Renal disease is a condition that impairs kidney function.
Ensa Cosby voiced strong support for her father after he was accused of sexual assault, saying she believed he was innocent.
Last May, Ensa and her sister Erinn released audio statements
in support of their famous father.
"I believe that racism has played a big role in all aspects of this scandal," Ensa Cosby wrote.
"My father has been publicly lynched in the media," she said. "My family, my young daughter, my young niece and nephew have had to stand helplessly by and watch the double standards of pretending to protect the rights of some, but ignoring the rights of others and exposing innocent children to such appalling accusations about someone they love dearly and who has been so loving and kind to them is beyond cruel."
The elder Cosby has denied the allegations.
Despite her father's fame, Ensa Cosby led a life away from the spotlight.
She is one of five children born to the superstar actor and his wife, Camille.
The couple's only son, Ennis, was murdered at the age of 27 in 1997 during a failed robbery attempt.
Funeral plans for Ensa have not yet been announced.
CNN's Steve Forest contributed to this story.