"We are proposing a rule to revoke a health claim for soy protein and heart disease," said a statement from Susan Mayne
, director of the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. "For the first time, we have considered it necessary to propose a rule to revoke a health claim because numerous studies published since the claim was authorized in 1999 have presented inconsistent findings on the relationship between soy protein and heart disease."
For consumers, the FDA's move does not change the nature of soy or its potential role as a vegetarian alternative to animal protein, wrote Linda Van Horn, professor and chief of nutrition in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
, in an email.
"Vegetarian diets can be nutritious and offer a way to lower LDL-cholesterol when saturated fat intake from meats or other animal sources are substituted with vegetable protein and especially when accompanied by poly-unsaturated fat sources," Van Horn said.
"Bottom line: the FDA decision does not condemn soy protein as a harmful ingredient when consumed within a healthy eating pattern," she wrote. "It simply acknowledges the scientific evidence indicating no special benefit independently as an agent to reduce risk of CVD," or cardiovascular disease.
Soy protein comes from soybeans
, and some research suggests that a daily intake of soy protein may slightly lower "bad" LDL cholesterol
, possibly leading to healthy-heart benefits.
"But we've since learned that not every way of lowering cholesterol has benefits, and some things that do lower cholesterol actually have shown harm, (and) what we know is that there was never any clinical trials ever that showed eating more soy improves heart health," said Dr. Karol Watson, a cardiologist and director of the UCLA Women's Cardiovascular Health Center
Yet many Americans rely on high-quality protein like soy, said John Erdman, professor emeritus in the division of nutritional sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a scientific adviser to the Soy Nutrition Institute.
"If nothing else, it doesn't contain cholesterol, and it's not high in saturated fats, so if you're replacing meat or dairy with soy, you're automatically getting heart health benefits," he said.
Erdman was disappointed but not surprised with the FDA's announcement, he said.
After all, he said, the FDA has been "under tremendous pressure" from anti-soy groups like the Weston A. Price Foundation to revoke the claim, despite some studies suggesting that soy has health benefits. The foundation is a nonprofit that works to restore what it calls nutrient-dense foods to the human diet
, according to its website.
The history of soy and health claims
"There was a sufficient amount of data prior to 1999 to suggest that 25 grams of soy protein a day
was sufficient to lower cholesterol, assuming you had an otherwise appropriate diet," said Erdman, who authored a statement paper in the journal Circulation in 2000
that concluded "it is prudent to recommend including soy protein foods in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol to promote heart health."