Tattoos have never been more popular, and part of the appeal lies in the rich variety of body-art traditions of the past. This portrait shows a heavily tattooed 19th-century man known as "the Turk." He was an act in Barnum's, a European traveling circus. His tattoos were in the Burmese style, and he was said to have been kidnapped by the "barbarians" of Asia and forcibly tattooed.
These engravings of fully costumed Maoris from the early 1800s were made by English sailor Barnet Burns, who himself received a full facial tattoo. When he returned to England in 1835, he styled himself as a "New Zealand chief."
A Maori chief from New Zealand, circa 1950, with the traditional facial tattoos.
A bust made around 1840 displays Maori tattoos. It was made by Pierre Marie Dumoutier, perhaps the first scientific participant in a colonial expedition to study physical anthropology.
This native of the Pacific island of Tikopia has rectangular chest tattoos thought to have been inspired by flags of passing sailing ships, which were considered symbols of power by indigenous peoples. It dates to 1827.
A Samoan man shows off his traditional pe'a, or ritual tattoos that are a marker of manhood.
This photograph, taken by Mark Adams in 1980, captures the bloody and painful process of customary tattoo among Samoan men. It involves excruciating pain, said to be the equivalent of childbirth in women.
The pe'a covers the body from waist to the rectum and then to the knees. It is crafted using only handmade tools such as bone, tusks, turtle shell and wood.
The Naga people of Assam, India, receive their tattoos when enemy flesh has been touched. This was taken in the early 1900s.
This 17th-century tattoo stamp was used to make an imprint of a tattoo on the skin, which was then needled. It was owned by the Razzouk family of Jerusalem, originally of Coptic descent, who have been tattooing pilgrims with Christian iconography for centuries; they continue to do so today. This stamp depicts the resurrection of Christ.