- More than 63 million people in India without access to clean drinking water
- Two Indian rivers join New Zealand river in being granted human status
On Monday, a court in the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand declared the Yamuna and Ganges rivers "living entities."
The court justified its ruling
on the grounds that the rivers were "losing their very existence" and the situation required "extraordinary measures to be taken to preserve and conserve the Rivers Ganga and Yamuna," using an alternative name for the Ganges.
The ruling said the rivers, both of which are considered sacred to Hindus and personified as goddesses, were crucial in providing "physical and spiritual sustenance" to locals.
Suresh Kumar Rohilla, an expert on urban water management at Indian NGO the Center for Science and Environment, said it was unclear how the court's decision would get translated on the ground.
"Any efforts to strengthen water quality (in the Ganges) are appreciated," he said. "Policy level efforts earlier hadn't brought results."
The Indian court's move comes a week after New Zealand's Whanganui River became the first river in the world to be granted human status
Maoris had been trying for a century to have their relationship with the river acknowledged by the government.
Under the Whanganui River Claims Settlement Bill, two people will act on behalf of the river and work to promote and protect its wellbeing.
The ruling in India echoed this, appointing three government officials as "legal guardians" of the rivers.
But Rohilla warned that it would not be a simple fix. "Ultimately courts can't clean rivers," he said, adding that people and government needed to take joint responsibility for protecting the waters.