Then-Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer confronts President Obama in 2012 at a Phoenix airport -- one of several incidents that led to talk that he was being treated with less respect than his predecessors because of race. Brewer, a Republican, said Obama chided her for a book she had written; the president's defenders said her finger-wagging evoked the Jim Crow era, when whites addressed black men like they were boys.
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It was the shout heard around the world. When Republican Rep. Joe Wilson from South Carolina called Obama a liar while the President was addressing a joint session of Congress in September of 2009, even Obama was stunned. Wilson's outburst was an ominous foreshadowing of what was to come.
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The nation was in the throes of its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression when the then-Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell publicly declared in 2010 his party's top priority: Making Obama a one-term president. Obama defenders say McConnell's remark revealed how the opposition to Obama had become personal, not just partisan.
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It was supposed to be funny, but it ended up infuriating many. A New Yorker cover in 2008 depicted Michelle Obama as a gun-toting militant and Obama dressed in Muslim attire. The magazine's editor said it was supposed to satirize fear of Obama, but others said it reinforced perceptions of him as un-American.
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Rep. F. James Sensenbrenner, a Wisconsin Republican, issued an apology in 2011 after he was caught commenting on First Lady Michelle Obama's "large posterior." Jokes about the First Lady's appearance became routine. One cartoonist drew a cartoon of the First Lady as a transgendered woman with a penis bulge.
A Republican staffer at the House of Representatives resigned in 2014 after she wrote that the Obama girls wore skirts at a White House Thanksgiving event that made it appear like they were headed to a bar. She admonished them to show more class.
A Republican congressman called Obama a "tar baby" during a debate over the debt ceiling in 2011. Republican Rep. Doug Lamborn apologized.
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At a meeting of conservative Christians in 2016, Georgia Republican Sen. David Perdue jokingly told the audience that they should pray for Obama and suggested a psalm that said "may his days be few." The audience laughed and applauded.
The leader of the House Republicans invited a foreign head of government, Israeli's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, to address a joint meeting of Congress without consulting Obama. Critics say the 2015 address was an unprecedented snub of a sitting President.
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Newt Gingrich, a former Republican Speaker of the House, said in 2010 that President Obama pretended to be normal but was engaged in "Kenyan, anti-colonial behavior." Later, Gingrich would call Obama the "food-stamp" president.