- Social comparison is an innate human tendency and how we determine some of our happiness
- People tend to perform better when their rivals are present, as compared to their performance against random strangers
In their book, Galinsky and Schweitzer argue that social comparison is an innate human tendency, and, whether it's the wisest move or not, it's a big part of the way we determine our own level of happiness.
Even monkeys judge what they've got by taking a peek at what the monkey next door is getting, according to a classic study by Emory University scientist Frans de Waal. De Waal trained capuchin monkeys to essentially use stones as a kind of currency, exchanging one for a nice cucumber slice. The monkeys were perfectly happy with this arrangement, until de Waal started giving some, but not all, of the monkeys a sweet, juicy grape instead of the cucumber. (Like humans, monkeys would much rather have something sweet than a boring vegetable.)
"Upon seeing this inequity, the monkey who was offered the regular cucumber went, well, apeshit," Galinsky and Schweitzer write. The monkeys who perceived themselves as receiving a lesser deal became visibly upset, refusing to pay for the cucumber or sometimes throwing the slice back in the experimenter's face. "What this experiment demonstrates," the authors write, "is that our evolutionary ancestors did not evaluate their outcomes in isolation; rather, they evaluated outcomes in a comparative process."
For a human example of this phenomenon, Galinsky and Schweitzer tell the story of a man named Scott Crabtree, who had dutifully climbed the corporate ladder at his company, steadily earning incremental raises. He was fine with this — until, that is, a just-out-of-college kid was hired and immediately began earning almost the exact same salary as him, a figure that had taken Crabtree decades to earn. The infuriating comparison made him so unhappy that he soon left the company, where he'd happily worked for many years.
"We are hardwired to engage in comparisons," Schweitzer said in an interview with Science of Us. "That is, we can't get away from it, and we're doing it to try to make sense of our world. Do I make enough money? Do I need to update my kitchen? Do I need a new car? Are my kids doing well? It's almost impossible to make those assessments objectively. So instead, we turn to comparisons."