A recent study
in Australia found that participants who spent time more standing and moving in the course of a week, based on a sensitive monitor adhered to their thigh, had lower levels of blood sugar and cholesterol. The benefits were even greater, and including reductions in body-mass index and waist circumference, among those who took more steps during the day.
The researchers of the study boiled down their findings to the simple message: "Stand up, sit less, move more." The study was published last week in the European Heart Journal.
Although the research has been pretty clear that there are health benefits to not sitting, we are just starting to understand that standing alone may be a good alternative, said Dr. Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, director of preventive cardiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. Lopez-Jimenez wrote an editorial
that accompanied the study in the European Heart Journal.
"The reason [standing could be good] is because when we stand there are many muscles in our legs and butt and abdomen that are working to keep you standing," he said. "Whenever muscle is used, it consumes sugar and affects triglycerides," which could, in turn, lower cholesterol, Lopez-Jimenez said. Standing regularly could translate into lower diabetes and heart disease risk, he added.
Not just exercise
The current U.S. guidelines
for physical activity focus on formal exercise, rather than just moving, and recommend at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity exercise
such as jogging or biking. However, research
suggests that even people who exercise face increased risk of heart disease, cancer and diabetes if they are otherwise sedentary.
Lopez-Jimenez thinks the lack of guidelines on sedentary behavior are "a problem because we have to start shifting the attention and consider more the idea of avoiding sitting." We need recommendations about many hours to avoid sitting, just like we have for the number of hours we should sleep, he added.
However it is hard to say exactly how to break up our nonsitting time between standing, walking and other activities because we don't know enough about their different health benefits, Lopez-Jimenez said.
In Australia, there are already specific recommendations
about how much you should stand and how to do it. It is the first country to have such guidelines, Lopez-Jimenez said. In Colombia
, government computers have software that pause the machines, forcing employees to take a break.
For now, Lopez-Jimenez advises his patients to engineer their lives to be less sedentary such as using a standing desk at work and taking the stairs whenever possible.
If we can manage to build more movement into our everyday activities, it might even be possible to skip the gym, although research is needed to address this possibility, Lopez-Jimenez. "If you barely sit during the day, do you really have to exercise to be healthy?" he said.
Timing is everything
Standing is great, but there can be too much of a good thing.
"It causes a whole variety of problems, just as if you sit for too long," said Alan Hedge, professor of ergonomics at Cornell University. In particular, standing for prolonged periods is associated with varicose veins
and back pain
, he said.
To get the right balance, Hedge recommends sitting 20 minutes out of every half hour at work, standing for eight minutes and moving around for at least two minutes. Although there is really no harm in spending more time in motion, you may be pretty tired by the end of the day if you do, Hedge said.
You can try to stick to this 20-8-2 breakdown by setting the alarm on your phone, using a timer app on your computer or relying on an old fashioned egg timer. "[But] these numbers are not absolute, it's a guideline. There may be times where you have to spend a whole half hour working on a document," Hedge said.
Following this guideline means that you would be standing up and sitting down 32 times in a workday, which could have its own benefits.
Each time you do that, you are giving your body a "gravitational stimulus," reminding it of the effect of gravity, which can help muscles and bones stay strong, Hedge said. In the book, "Sitting Kills, Moving Heals," Joan Vernikos, former director of NASA's Life Sciences Division, talks about research
suggesting that 32 transitions in a day helps maintain healthy blood pressure.
Let the work rhythm move you
Even if you don't set a timer to tell you when to get out of your seat, there are a number of ways you can build more movement into your workday. Lopez-Jimenez suggests his patients set up their space so that things are not at arm's reach.
"Having a printer at the end of the hallway is going to force you to walk every time you print a page," he said.
These little life hacks can take many forms depending on what you do. For example, if you are an executive or administrator and have to be on the phone a lot, you could use an earpiece and talk while walking the hallway or standing in a conference room, Lopez-Jimenez said.
Workplaces are also starting to do their part to help staff get on their feet.
Some companies have moved vending machines to one central floor as an easy way to get you walking, Hedge said. "You're not even thinking, 'Oh well, I have to walk now,' " he added.
At Lopez-Jimenez's Mayo Clinic, some cardiology meeting rooms have treadmills at the back of the conference room so attendees can walk instead of sit or stand. "The product was so successful that we had to put up sign-up sheets," he said.
Go out to eat
Next time you are deciding between lunch from the deli or take-out Chinese, it may make sense to consider going to the spot that is a bit longer stroll, Hedge said. And instead of getting frustrated with the long line to order, just think that you are making a dent in your standing time for the hour.