Graphene - which has a similar molecular structure to the graphite commonly found in pencils - was discovered in 2004. The material is two-dimensional, one atom thick, has superconducting properties, and is 200 times stronger than steel.
Since its discovery, graphene has spawned many associated products and applications. Pictured is the molecular structure of a graphene crystal - a novel two-dimensional material obtained from graphene (a monolayer of carbon atoms) by attaching hydrogen atoms (red) to each carbon atoms (blue) in the crystal.
Researcher Dr. Rahul R. Nair shows his research sample: a one-micron thick graphene oxide film.
A magnified image of research samples with small holes covered by one-atom-thick graphene. Light can be seen passing through the film with the naked eye.
An artist's depiction of a NO2 molecule on a graphene surface. Graphene is known to be impermeable to atoms and molecules, but researchers found that protons from hydrogen atom could easily pass through the membrane with big implications for the way we make fuel-cell batteries.
Researchers use electron-beam lithography to microfabricate graphene devices at Manchester University.