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9 kinds of chocolate to know

Updated 5:05 PM ET, Wed October 28, 2015
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So you think you know chocolate? You probably do, but studying up might be the most delicious thing you do all day. Here are some facts about varieties of chocolate, from America's Test Kitchen. Koichi Kamoshida/Getty Images
Unsweetened Chocolate -- An aptly named man, James Baker, began manufacturing unsweetened chocolate in Massachusetts in 1765; his Baker's Unsweetened Chocolate is still sold today. For every ounce of unsweetened chocolate called for in a recipe, you can substitute 1 1/2 ounces of bittersweet or semisweet chocolate and subtract 1 tablespoon of sugar. America's Test Kitchen
Milk Chocolate -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration maintains that milk chocolate must contain at least 12% milk solids. It's usually sweeter than dark chocolate, although manufacturers today are making deeper, darker milk chocolates. Store all chocolate in a cool, dry place to prevent "bloom," a harmless but unsightly gray coating. America's Test Kitchen
Dark Chocolate -- This has a higher cocoa percentage and less sugar than milk chocolate, which produces deeper, more complex flavor. Labels may say either "bittersweet" or "semisweet," but the FDA doesn't distinguish between them, so look for the cocoa content: Dark chocolate must contain at least 35 percent. America's Test Kitchen
White Chocolate -- Because it contains no cocoa, white chocolate is not actually chocolate. It's made from cocoa butter (the fat from the bean), sugar, vanilla, and milk solids. You can use white chocolate to add creaminess and structure in some surprising places, such as vanilla ice cream. America's Test Kitchen
Chocolate Chips -- In the 1930s, an innkeeper at the Toll House Inn in Whitman, Massachusetts, chopped up a chocolate bar to mix into butter cookies and made cookie history. Some time later, she struck a deal with Nestlé, which soon began manufacturing chips. These chips have less cocoa butter than bar chocolate, so they retain their shape in baked goods. America's Test Kitchen
Cacao Nibs -- These cracked bits of roasted cacao beans—the raw material for bar chocolate and cocoa powder—are unsweetened, giving them a bitter, earthy but not unpleasant flavor. Cacao nibs add intense flavor and crunch to granola and many baked goods. You'll find them in natural foods stores. America's Test Kitchen
Gianduia -- You may know the flavor of gianduia from Nutella, the popular hazelnut and chocolate spread. Gianduia also comes in bars for baking and as candies called gianduiotti, which are popular in Torino, Italy—gianduia's birthplace. Hazelnut paste gives this (milk or dark) chocolate its nutty flavor and soft, fudgy texture. America's Test Kitchen
Chocolate Extract -- Vanilla extract is a staple in every baker's pantry, so why not chocolate extract? Like vanilla, chocolate extract uses alcohol to draw out the bean's flavor. Try substituting chocolate extract for half of the vanilla in recipes for chocolate cake or brownies. America's Test Kitchen
Mexican Chocolate -- Much Mexican chocolate is stone-ground in the traditional manner, which accounts for its gritty texture. Sweetened Mexican chocolate (which is often ground with cinnamon) tastes of molasses, dried fruit, and/or coffee. In the U.S., look for Taza, Abuelita, or Ibarra brands. America's Test Kitchen