Here’s a look at BALCO, the lab that provided steroids to several professional athletes, including baseball player Barry Bonds and track and field star Marion Jones.
BALCO stands for Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative.
The BALCO scandal began as two separate, independent investigations: one by federal agents in California looking into BALCO, and one by investigators for the US Anti-Doping Agency working on a tip from an anonymous source.
August 2002 - Federal agents begin investigating BALCO, a California lab suspected of selling banned performance enhancing drugs to athletes.
June 2003 - THE USADA receives an anonymous tip that an undetectable, designer steroid is being distributed by Victor Conte, founder of BALCO. The tipster sends the USADA a syringe filled with the steroid. The tipster is later identified as Trevor Graham, the former coach of runners Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery.
September 2003 - BALCO offices are raided by agents of the Internal Revenue Service and a San Mateo County narcotics task force. Also raided is the home of Greg Anderson, a personal trainer for Bonds.
October 16, 2003 - The USADA announces it has uncovered a doping “conspiracy” involving previously undetectable steroids used by track and field athletes.
October 23, 2003 - A grand jury investigation into BALCO begins. Dozens of high profile athletes are subpoenaed to testify during the investigation.
2004 - Jones files a $25 million defamation lawsuit against Conte accusing him of trying to “destroy her career and reputation” when he said he supplied her with performance enhancing drugs. The lawsuit is settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.
February 12, 2004 - Conte, BALCO executive James Valente, Anderson, and track coach Remi Korchemny are indicted on charges of money laundering, fraud and possession with intent to distribute steroids. The following day all of the defendants plead not guilty.
December 2, 2004 - The San Francisco Chronicle begins revealing secret grand jury testimony from several major baseball players, during which some of the players admit to steroid use. Bonds testified that he used a substance given to him by Anderson, but that he did not know they were steroids.
December 3, 2004 - US Attorney Kevin Ryan requests a formal investigation into who is leaking grand jury testimony to reporters.
July 15, 2005 - Conte and Anderson plead guilty to steroid distribution and money laundering. Valente pleads guilty to steroid distribution.
July 29, 2005 - Korchemny pleads guilty to reduced charges. He is later sentenced to one year of probation.
October 18, 2005 - Conte is sentenced to four months in prison and four months house arrest. Anderson is sentenced to three months in prison and three months house arrest. Valente receives probation.
February 2007 - Troy Ellerman, former attorney for Conte, admits to showing grand jury testimony to a San Francisco Chronicle reporter. Ellerman pleads guilty to four felonies, including contempt of court and obstruction of justice. Later, he is sentenced to two-and-a-half years in prison.
November 15, 2007 - A federal jury indicts Bonds on perjury and obstruction of justice charges and accuses him of lying when he said he didn’t knowingly take steroids given to him by Anderson.
April 13, 2011 - Bonds is convicted of one count of obstruction of justice. A mistrial is declared on three counts of perjury after jurors report they cannot reach an agreement. In December 2011, Bonds is sentenced to 30 days of house arrest and two years of probation.
May 3, 2012 - Bonds files a brief with the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals urging the court to overturn his obstruction of justice conviction.
April 22, 2015 - A federal appeals court overturns Bonds’ obstruction of justice conviction.
Athletes involved (not comprehensive)
Major League Baseball
Barry Bonds and Gary Sheffield: Testified before the federal grand jury that they unknowingly took steroids given to them by Anderson.
Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Armando Rios, Benito Santiago, Bobby Estalella: Testified before the federal grand jury that they used steroids provided to them by Anderson.
Track & Field
Jones admitted that she used steroids before the 2000 Summer Olympics and lied to federal prosecutors about it.
Regina Jacobs tested positive and was suspended from competition for four years.
Tim Montgomery testified before the federal grand jury that he unknowingly used steroids provided to him by Conte. He was suspended from competition for two years.
Alvin Harrison and Michelle Collins: Suspended from competition for four years.
Kevin Toth, John McEwen, Dwain Chambers, Calvin Harrison, Melissa Price: Tested positive and suspended from competition for two years.
Chryste Gaines and Kelli White: Suspended from competition for two years.
Sandra Glover, Christopher Phillips, Eric Thomas: Tested positive and given a warning.
Bill Romanowski tested positive, but had already retired.
Barret Robbins, Dana Stubblefield and Chris Cooper: Tested positive and fined by the NFL.
Shane Mosley admitted he unknowingly took steroids provided by BALCO.