Tibet Fast Facts

Tibetan monks dressed as demons attend the Beating Ghost festival at the Yonghe Temple, also known as the Lama Temple, in Beijing on March 19, 2015. The Beating Ghost festival, or Da Gui festival in Chinese, is an important ritual of Tibetan Buddhism and is believed to expel evil spirits and shake off troubles.

(CNN)Here's a look at Tibet, which is often called "the roof of the world."

About Tibet:
(from National Bureau of Statistics of China)
Area: 1.22 million sq km (approximately 474,000 sq miles)
Capital: Lhasa
Population: 3,440,000 (2018)
    Language: Tibetan
    Government (China): Governed by the Chinese Communist Party; the head of state is President Xi Jinping.
    Government (Exiled): Centered in Dharamsala, India, includes a popularly elected assembly of deputies, ministers, a cabinet chairman (similar to a prime minister).
    Facts:
    Tibet is an internationally recognized autonomous region within the People's Republic of China, though many Tibetans dispute the legitimacy of China's rule.
    Tibet is officially called the Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region (TAR).
    The Tibet Autonomous Region lies in the Plateau of Tibet, also called the Tibetan Highlands, which also includes portions of China's Qinghai and Sichuan provinces and the Uygur Autonomous Region Xinjiang. A little more than half of the Plateau of Tibet lies outside of the TAR.
    Mount Everest, the highest point on earth, lies on the border between Tibet and neighboring Nepal.
    Timeline:
    1640 - Güüshi Khan invades Tibet and defeats a regional king.
    1642 - Khan enthrones the Dalai Lama as ruler of Tibet. Dalai Lama is the title of the head of the Dge-lugs-pa, or Yellow Hat, order of Tibetan Buddhists.
    1792 - Tibet closes itself off to foreign visitors.
    1904 - Tibet and Great Britain sign a treaty in Lhasa, ending a brief period of military aggression. The Dalai Lama flees to China. Great Britain's interest is in securing trade rights and it overcomes Tibetan resistance with force. China is not involved in the treaty negotiation.
    April 27, 1906 - Great Britain and China sign a treaty recognizing China's dominion of Tibet; the treaty is negotiated without any Tibetan participation.
    1910 - China attempts to gain physical control of Tibet; the Dalai Lama flees and takes refuge in India.
    1912 - China becomes a republic; Tibet declares its independence and expels the Chinese.
    July 6, 1935 - Lhamo Dhondup, the future Dalai Lama, is born to a farming family in Taktser, Amdo Province, Tibet.
    1938 - Dhondup is removed from his family and taken to the Kumbum monastery after a delegation of monks looking for the new Dalai Lama finds him.
    February 22, 1940 - Enthronement ceremony for the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, takes place in Lhasa, Tibet.
    November 8, 1950 - Chinese soldiers of the People's Liberation Army invade Tibet at Lhasa.
    November 17, 1950 - The Dalai Lama assumes full political power as Tibetan Head of State and Government ahead of schedule. Investiture is moved up from his 18th birthday as a result of China's invasion of Tibet.
    May 23, 1951 - A Tibetan delegation signs a treaty with China, renouncing independence in return for religious and cultural autonomy.
    March 1959 - The Dalai Lama, his government, and approximately 80,000 Tibetans flee to India.
    1960 - Dharamsala, India, becomes home to the Dalai Lama and headquarters of the government-in-exile of Tibet.