During the Fast and Furious investigation, nearly 2,000 firearms were illegally purchased for $1.5 million, according to a DOJ inspector General report.
Hundreds of guns were later recovered in the United States and Mexico.
In 2010, two of the weapons linked to Fast and Furious turned up near the scene of the murder of US Border Patrol Agent Brian Terry in the Arizona desert.
Whistleblowing led to investigations by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee. During the House investigation, Attorney General Eric Holder
was cited for contempt.
Fast and Furious was one of the operations under Project Gunrunner,
part of the Department of Justice's broader National Southwest Border Counternarcotics Strategy.
Timeline:October 31, 2009 - Phoenix-based ATF agents get a tip from a local gun shop about suspicious purchases of assault rifles by four individuals.
The agents begin investigating whether the individuals were "straw purchasers" working for a large-scale illegal gun trafficking organization. The probe later comes to be known as Operation Fast and Furious.
December 14, 2010 - Terry is killed during a shootout in the Arizona desert.
Four of the men involved in the shootout are later convicted of murder. Two other associates are later charged with conspiracy and firearms offenses in connection with the killing. The last suspect is arrested in 2017.
January 25, 2011 -
The US Attorney's office in Arizona announces that 34 suspects have been indicted for firearms trafficking from the United States to Mexico. The DOJ inspector general later reports that 20 of the defendants were caught via Fast and Furious.
January 27, 2011 - Senator Chuck Grassley of the Senate Judiciary Committee sends a letter to Kenneth Melson, acting director of the ATF, regarding the agency's firearms trafficking investigation and allegations that the ATF allowed hundreds of assault weapons to be smuggled to Mexico. He notes that two of the guns may have been used by Terry's killers.
April 1, 2011 - The House Oversight Committee issues a subpoena for ATF documents.
May 3, 2011 - Holder testifies before the House Judiciary Committee. He says that he first heard of Fast and Furious only over the past few weeks.
November 8, 2011 - Holder testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee.
"This operation was flawed in its concept and flawed in its execution.," he says.
June 20, 2012 - Republicans on the House Oversight Committee recommend that Holder be cited for contempt of Congress
for failing to turn over documents relating to Fast and Furious.
They make the recommendation after President Barack Obama
asserts executive privilege over some documents sought by the committee.
June 28, 2012 - The House of Representatives votes 255-67 to hold Holder in criminal contempt of Congress.
This is the first time in American history that the head of the Justice Department has been held in contempt by Congress.
July 31, 2012 -
The first of a three-part joint Congressional report is released. The report prompts the resignation of William Hoover, the deputy director of the ATF.
August 13, 2012 -
The House Oversight Committee files a civil lawsuit against Holder over Fast and Furious documents.
On January 19, 2016, a federal judge orders the DOJ to release thousands of pages of documents.
November 3, 2014 - Under court order, the Justice Department turns over nearly 65,000 pages of Fast and Furious-related documents.
The documents were previously withheld under the Obama administration's claim of executive privilege.
May 8, 2019 -
The House and the Justice Department announce to a federal appeals court that they had reached a settlement in the Operation Fast and Furious court case on April 10, 2019.
In the deal, both sides state that they are abandoning their appeals and lawsuit despite disagreeing with the prior court's orders.