Death Penalty Fast Facts

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(CNN)Here's a look at the death penalty in the United States.

Facts

As of December 12, 2019, capital punishment is legal in 29 US states.
    According to the Criminal Justice Project of the NAACP, there are 2,656 people on death row in the United States as of July 1, 2019.
    Since 1976, when the death penalty was reinstated by the US Supreme Court, 1,512 people have been executed (as of December 12, 2019).
    Since 1973, there have been 166 death row exonerations (as of December 2019). Twenty-nine of them are from the state of Florida.

    Federal Government

    The US government and US military have 62 people awaiting execution as of December 20, 2019.
    The US government has executed three people since 1988 when the federal death penalty statute was reinstated, but none since 2003.

    Females

    According to the Criminal Justice Project of the NAACP, there are 55 women on death row in the United States as of July 1, 2019.
    As of July 1, 2019, 16 women have been executed since the reinstatement of the death penalty.

    Juveniles

    Twenty-two individuals were executed between 1976 and 2005 for crimes committed as juveniles.
    March 1, 2005 - Roper v. Simmons. The Supreme Court rules that the execution of juvenile offenders is unconstitutional.

    Clemency

    For federal death row inmates, the president alone has the power to grant a pardon.

    Timeline

    1834 - Pennsylvania becomes the first state to move executions into correctional facilities, ending public executions.
    1846 - Michigan becomes the first state to abolish the death penalty for all crimes except treason.
    1890 - William Kemmler becomes the first person executed by electrocution.
    1907-1917 - Nine states abolish the death penalty for all crimes or strictly limit it. By 1920, five of those states had reinstated it.
    1924 - The use of cyanide gas is introduced as an execution method.
    June 29, 1972 - Furman v. Georgia. The Supreme Court effectively voids 40 death penalty statutes and suspends the death penalty.
    1976 - Gregg v. Georgia. The death penalty is reinstated.
    January 17, 1977 - A 10-year moratorium on the death penalty ends with the execution of Gary Gilmore by firing squad in Utah.
    1977 - Oklahoma becomes the first state to adopt lethal injection as a means of execution.
    December 7, 1982 - Charles Brooks becomes the first person executed by lethal injection.
    1984 - Velma Barfield of North Carolina becomes the first woman executed since reinstatement of the death penalty.
    1986 - Ford v. Wainwright. Execution of insane persons is banned.
    1987 - McCleskey v. Kemp. Racial disparities are not recognized as a constitutional violation of "equal protection of the law" unless intentional racial discrimination against the defendant can be shown.
    1988 - Thompson v. Oklahoma. Executions of offenders age 15 and younger at the time of their crimes are declared unconstitutional.
    1996 - The last execution by hanging takes place in Delaware, with the death of Billy Bailey.
    January 31, 2000 - A moratorium on executions is declared by Illinois Governor George Ryan. Since 1976, Illinois is the first state to block executions.
    2002 - Atkins v. Virginia. The Supreme Court rules that the execution of mentally retarded defendants violates the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishment.
    January 2003 - Before leaving office, Governor Ryan grants clemency to all the remaining 167 inmates on Illinois's death row, due to the flawed process that led to the death sentences.
    June 12, 2006 - The Supreme Court rules that