- Environmental Working Group tests hundreds of beach and sport sunscreens
- 56% of sunscreens contain the chemical oxybenzone, group says
- FDA OK'd oxybenzone in sunscreen for use on children older than 6 months
- The America Academy of Dermatology maintains that oxybenzone is safe
Twenty-five percent of 800 tested sunscreens are effective at protecting your skin without the use of potentially harmful ingredients, according to the 2012 Sunscreen Guide released Wednesday by the Environmental Working Group.
"The results are slightly better than previous years, but it continues to surprise us that we can recommend such few products," said Nneka Leiba, an Environmental Working Group senior analyst.
To make the watchdog group's safe list, sunscreens must be free of oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate (a type of vitamin A), not have SPF above 50 and protect against UVA and UVB sunrays.
The Environmental Working Group says 56% of beach and sport sunscreens contain the chemical oxybenzone. The primary function of oxybenzone is to absorb ultraviolet light, but some research shows oxybenzone can be absorbed through the skin.
The Environmental Working Group and other toxicology experts believe that oxybenzone is linked to hormone disruption and potentially to cell damage that may lead to skin cancer.
The American Academy of Dermatology says oxybenzone is safe.
"Oxybenzone is one of the few FDA-approved ingredients that provides effective broad spectrum protection from UV radiation, and has been approved for use since 1978," said Dr. Daniel M. Siegel, president of the academy.
The Food and Drug Administration has approved oxybenzone in sunscreen for use on children older than 6 months.
"We will continue to push for better options every year. We're trying to fill the gap where the FDA has failed," said Leiba.
The Environmental Working Group also warns consumers to avoid retinyl palminate.
Government-funded studies have found that this particular type of vitamin A may increase risk of skin cancer when used on sun-exposed skin. However, these reports have been in mice and evidence has been inconclusive for humans.
"Consumers get frustrated when there are no alternatives, but the point of this is that you don't have to be completely disheartened, because there are products on the market that don't contain these chemicals," said Leiba.
The Environmental Working Group report found that fewer sunscreens - about 25% - contain retinyl palmitate, compared to 33% in last year's study. The Environmental Working Group says this ingredient does not make sunscreen more effective, and until definitive research is available, consumers should avoid sunscreen products containing retinyl palminate.
Most dermatologists agree with the Environmental Working Group's recommendation that consumers use products labeled broad spectrum.
Broad spectrum means the product protects against both UVB rays that cause sunburns and also UVA radiation that causes premature skin damage and aging.
"Evidence has shown the best sunscreens are the ones that block UVB and UVA," said Dr. Ariel Ostad, a clinical assistant professor in the department of dermatology at New York University Medical Center, and not affiliated with the Environmental Working Group report.
"The majority of these companies that market sunscreen products, they try to make people more aware of the SPF."