- The Baha'i -- Iran's largest religious minority -- are systematically excluded from higher education
- In response, Baha'is have improvised an informal, semi-underground college since 1987
- Iran's raid on the institution earlier this year has prompted an international outcry
Today, Keivan Mohammad Hassan lives a peaceful life with his family as a civil engineer in Sacramento, California. But things could easily be very different.
Hassan believes that had he not fled his homeland as a refugee, he would likely number among the Iranian Baha'is facing years behind bars simply for working to provide younger members of their community a tertiary education.
"If myself and my wife were there, we would be imprisoned," he said.
Hassan, 31, is a member of the Baha'i Faith, Iran's largest religious minority with an estimated 300,000 members. Considered by the ruling clergy to be apostates, Baha'is have been persecuted in Iran since the faith arose there in the mid-19th century.
Its members are systematically denied access to higher education in the Islamic republic today, says Amnesty International.
"People apply for university and their applications are turned down, even though they have strong results from secondary school," said Elise Auerbach, Iran specialist for Amnesty International USA.
"They can't get credentials, so they're barred from pursuing all sorts of professions. They can't be doctors, lawyers, university professors or scientists."
In response, Baha'is have improvised a decentralized, semi-underground college known as the Baha'i Institute for Higher Education (BIHE).
Since 1987, BIHE has run classes in the living rooms and kitchens of Baha'i homes, on the sweat of volunteer Baha'i professors, many of whom lost their jobs in Iranian universities over their religious beliefs.
According to David Hoffman, founder of a campaign to support Iran's Baha'is in their quest for higher education, the college has produced about 2,000 graduates, one-in-ten of whom have gone on to postgraduate study abroad at one of 60 universities outside Iran recognizing BIHE coursework.
"It's a creative solution to a real dilemma," said Hoffman. "These are very resilient people."
In May, more than 30 Baha'i homes across Iran were raided as part of a crackdown on BIHE. The institution was subsequently declared illegal, according to human rights groups, and seven professors and administrators were last month sente