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Main points of Bonn deal

Japanese environment minister
Delegates were relieved when the deal was agreed after days of negotiating  


BONN, Germany -- The agreement on the Kyoto climate protocol reached in Bonn followed days of intense negotiations.

-- The accord sets binding targets for developed countries to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" by the end of the decade

-- The deal includes agreements on enforcement, emission credits for forests that soak up carbon, aid to promote clean energy in poorer nations, and emissions trading -- buying and selling the right to pollute.

-- Only the 30-odd most developed nations would, if they ratify the treaty, have to cut emissions. The U.S. has said it will not ratify the accord

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-- The accord follows four years of negotiations which had pitched the EU, which wants tough targets on cutting emissions, against countries including Japan, Canada and Russia, which wanted more flexible mechanisms

-- Once a compromise deal was tabled, the race was on to break the Japanese-European deadlock on the issue of how the targets would be enforced

-- Japan was against making penalties for countries that fail to meet their Kyoto targets legally binding. In the end, Tokyo agreed to have the dispute reconsidered later.

-- The EU gave ground by dropping the word "legally" from descriptions of how binding the hitting of emissions targets would be on countries. EU officials insisted the targets would still be binding

-- As the U.S. has said it will not ratify the deal, Japan remains crucial for bringing it into force as it must be ratified by 55 nations responsible for 55 percent of greenhouse gas emissions to take force

-- Forested nations like Canada, Russia and Japan won concessions from the European Union to be able to offset carbon-absorbing forests against targets for cutting carbon dioxide emissions

-- To help developing nations trying to clean up emissions so they can one day join the treaty, the EU announced a $410 million fund

-- Environmentalists say that means the cut is only about a third of the original goal of reducing industrial countries' greenhouse gas output to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by 2012

-- The finer detail of the agreement will be worked out by civil servants this week






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