In 1854, Pope Pius IX promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate
Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
In 1863, Briton Tom King became the world's first heavyweight
boxing champion when he beat American John Heenan in Kent,
In 1907, Oscar II, King of Sweden from 1872-1907 and Norway
from 1872-1905 died and was succeeded by his son Gustav V.
In 1914, the Battle of the Falkland Islands between Britain
and Germany resulted in a British victory.
In 1940, a heavy overnight raid by German bombers on London
caused the first serious damage to the House of Commons and
Tower of London.
In 1941, Britain and the United States declared war on Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor the previous day.
In 1943, Jim Morrison, lead singer with the U.S. rock group
"the Doors," born.
In 1949, Chinese Nationalists flee the Chinese mainland,
moving their capital to Formosa (Taiwan).
In 1949, Jule Styne's musical comedy "Gentlemen Prefer
Blondes" premiered in New York.
In 1953, at the U.N., President Eisenhower called on the major powers to contribute from their stockpiles to an international pool for the peaceful development of atomic energy, and proposed that an international atomic energy agency be set up.
In 1966, 28 countries, including the United States and Soviet Union, agreed to ban nuclear weapons in space.
In 1974, the Greek people, voting in a referendum, decided by
a huge majority against restoring the monarchy.
In 1978, Golda Meir, the first woman prime minister of Israel
from 1969-74 died.
In 1980, John Lennon, former member of "The Beatles," was
shot dead in New York by Mark David Chapman.
In 1983, the United States ended a five-year ban on arms sales to Argentina.
In 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev signed a treaty in Washington to eliminate all their intermediate-range and shorter-range nuclear missiles.
In 1989, East Germany opened corruption investigations against former Communist Party chief Erich Honecker and five other disgraced former leaders.
In 1991, leaders of Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine formed the Commonwealth of Independent States.
In 1993, Winnie Mandela, estranged wife of Nelson Mandela,
made a triumphant return to the top level of the African
National Congress when the ANC Women's League elected her as its president.
In 1995, the Baltic state of Lithuania formally applied for
membership of the European Union.