In 1483, Britain's Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, was
beheaded at Salisbury for his rebellion against King Richard
In 1721, Peter I was proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias.
In 1785, the first lifeboat was patented by London
coachbuilder Lionel Lukin.
In 1841, following the British occupation of
Kabul, Afghans revolted and murdered Sir Alexander Burnes and 23 others heralding the start of the second Afghan War.
In 1889, North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted to the
Union as the 39th and 40th states.
In 1917, Arthur James Balfour, British foreign secretary,
submitted a declaration of intent, known as the Balfour
Declaration, to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
In 1930, Haile Selassie was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia.
In 1936, the first public regular high definition television
service was inaugurated by the BBC at Alexander Palace on this day using 240 and 405 lines.
In 1938, Hungary annexed southern Slovakia following the
dismemberment of Czechoslovakia at the Munich agreement in
In 1947, the Hughes H-4 Hercules, an eight-engined flying
boat, built by Howard Hughes, made its one and only flight of
just over a mile in Los Angeles harbor.
In 1953, Pakistan's parliament declared the country "the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan."
In 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. President John
F. Kennedy announced that Soviet missile bases in Cuba were
In 1964, King Saud of Saudi Arabia was deposed and replaced by Prince Faisal.
In 1976, Jimmy Carter was elected 39th U.S. President,
defeating Gerald Ford. He was the first president from Georgia.
In 1978, two Soviet cosmonauts returned to earth from the
Salyut 6 space station after setting a new endurance record of 139 days, 14 hours.
In 1980, the Iranian parliament voted for the release of American hostages held at the U.S. embassy, but set conditions. They were eventually released in January 1981.
In 1984, the Kremlin announced that Josef Stalin's daughter
Svetlana, who defected to the U.S. in 1967, had returned to
In 1990, Mozambique parliament approved a new constitution
turning the country into a multi-party democracy.
In 1995, former South African defense minister Magnus Malan
and 10 retired senior officers were arrested and accused of
In 1995, the Argentine Supreme Court ordered the extradition
to Italy of former SS captain Erich Priebke to face trial for a World War II massacre of prisoners in the Ardeatine Caves.