Recent Washington-Moscow summitsAugust 30, 1998
Web posted at: 11:18 a.m. EDT (1518 GMT)
MOSCOW (Reuters) -- The Russia-U.S. summit on Tuesday and Wednesday is the latest in a tradition of meetings that were once aimed at reducing superpower tensions during the Cold War but that now focus on cooperation.
U.S. and Soviet leaders met in cities around the world until the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991 turned the meetings into U.S.-Russian summits.
Russian President Boris Yeltsin and U.S. President Bill Clinton now meet regularly, although many of their meetings have not been considered full summits. The last formal summit was in March 1997.
Following is a chronology of recent summits:
December 1989 -- Less than a month after the fall of the Berlin Wall, U.S. President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet on a ship in the Mediterranean off Malta, dubbed the "seasick summit" because of gales and high seas. They agree to accelerate negotiations on cutting long-range nuclear missiles and conventional forces in Europe.
May-June 1990 -- Gorbachev visits Washington for follow-up summit hailed as proof of growing superpower rapport.
September 1990 -- Bush hastily arranges one-day meeting in Helsinki, primarily to show U.S.-Soviet unity in midst of Gulf crisis after Iraq invades Kuwait. Now seen as a brief "golden age" of superpower cooperation that would not last.
November 1990 -- Bush and Gorbachev meet at European security conference summit in Paris, hold further talks on Gulf.
July 1991 -- Bush and Gorbachev meet after Group of Seven economic summit in London, announce deal on strategic arms reduction treaty (START) to cut their long-range nuclear missile arsenals.
February 1992 -- Bush and Yeltsin hold first meeting since dissolution of Soviet Union in December 1991. Focus on arms control and Western aid for Russia during talks at Camp David, which result in declaration that two countries no longer "regard each other as potential adversaries."
June 1992 -- At formal summit in Washington, Bush, Yeltsin agree in principle to slash strategic weapons arsenals by about two-thirds by 2003, to be formalized later as START-2 pact. Yeltsin appeals for aid to bolster Russian economic reforms.
January 1993 -- Yeltsin, Bush sign START-2 pact in Kremlin during 24-hour Bush visit to Moscow on his final overseas trip before leaving office. Bush says pact offers "a future free from fear;" Yeltsin calls it "a treaty of hope."
April 1993 -- Yeltsin and the newly elected Clinton hold introductory summit in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss emergency aid for Yeltsin's embattled economic and democratic reforms. Clinton announces immediate U.S. aid package worth $1.6 billion and plans to press for more long-term Western multilateral aid.
July 1993 -- Yeltsin, Clinton hold talks in connection with summit of seven industrial nations in Tokyo, with continued Russian bid for economic assistance the main issue. G-7 endorses $3 billion package to promote privatization of economies in former Soviet Union.
January 1994 -- Clinton visits Moscow on first European tour to show support for Yeltsin and reformers, shaken by strong showing of ultra-nationalists and communists in December parliamentary elections. Tells Yeltsin United States, Russia must work together on global security.
July 1994 -- Yeltsin, Clinton hold bilateral meeting during annual G-7 summit in Naples, Italy. Yeltsin makes spirited pitch for United States and allies to dismantle remaining Cold War trade barriers to do more business with Moscow.
September 1994 -- Yeltsin, Clinton hold their third formal summit, signing a "partnership for economic progress" and a joint statement pledging to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. They also agree to accelerate the timetable for scrapping nuclear warheads covered by arms treaties.
May 1995 -- The two meet in Moscow after celebrations marking the 50th anniversary of the World War II victory over Nazi Germany. Differences emerge over Russia's planned sale of nuclear reactors to Iran, but Russia agrees to join NATO's Partnership for Peace program of cooperation.
June 1995 -- The leaders meet in Halifax, Canada, again on the sidelines of a G-7 summit. Yeltsin asks for Russian membership of exclusive rich nations' club.
October 1995 -- After good-humored summit at Hyde Park, north of New York, Clinton and Yeltsin announce agreement to cooperate in policing Bosnian peace accord.
March 1996 -- They meet in the Egyptian resort of Sharm El-Sheikh at an international conference to combat terrorism, following killings that threaten to disrupt Middle East peace process.
April 1996 -- At an eight-nation summit on nuclear safety in Moscow, Clinton and Yeltsin both have their eyes on their respective re-election campaigns. Yeltsin wins in July, very much against the odds. Clinton wins easy victory in November.
March 1997 -- At a formal two-day summit in Helsinki, Clinton and Yeltsin agree on measures to help the Russian economy and, implicitly, compensate for NATO expansion. Yeltsin grudgingly acknowledges NATO expansion will happen and says he will press parliament to ratify START-2 arms reduction accord.
May 1997 -- Clinton and Yeltsin meet for an hour after a NATO summit at which Russia signed new partnership deal with the Western alliance. They discuss implementation of accords reached at Helsinki summit, Russia's relations with NATO and preparations for an eight-nation summit in Denver, Colorado.
June 1997 -- Yeltsin and Clinton hold informal talks in Denver on the sidelines of an eight-nation summit. A deal is announced for Russia to join the Paris Club of government creditors.
March 1998 - Clinton and Yeltsin hold low-key talks at end of another eight-nation summit, this time in the English city of Birmingham. Yeltsin says he hopes Clinton will visit Moscow in July but the U.S. president hopes the START-2 arms accord will be ratified before he pays his visit.
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