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Election Watch

Panama (Presidential)
Republic of Panama Presidential May 2, 1999
At stake in this election:
  • The office of the president of Panama
Description of government structure:
  • Legislature: Panama's unicameral legislature, the Asamblea Legislativa, consists of 72 members.
Description of electoral system:
  • The president is directly elected by simple majority vote for a five-year term.
  • The president may not serve for more than one consecutive term of office.
  • Members of the Asamblea Legislativa are directly elected by a mixed system of simple majority vote in single-member constituencies and party-list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies.
Results of the election for president:
  • Presidential Candidate: Mireya MOSCOSO
    Party Alliance: Union for Panama
    The Union for Panama is endorsed by the Arnulfista Party, the Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), the Nationalist Republican Movement (MORENA), and the Democratic Change Party.
    Valid Votes Received: 574,610
    Percent of Valid Votes Received: 44.82%

  • Presidential Candidate: Martin TORRIJOS
    Party Alliance: New Nation Alliance
    The New Nation Alliance is endorsed by the Democratic Revolutionary Party, the National Liberal Party, the Solidarity Party, and the Motherland Movement.
    Valid Votes Received: 484,150
    Percent of Valid Votes Received: 37.76%

  • Presidential Candidate: Alberto VALLARINO
    Party Alliance: Opposition Action
    The Opposition Action is endorsed by the Christian Democratic Party (PDC), the Civic Renewal Party (PRC), the Popular Nationalist Party (PNP), and the Liberal Party.
    Valid Votes Received: 223,272
    Percent of Valid Votes Received: 17.41%

When was the last presidential election?
  • Last presidential election held: May 8, 1994
  • In the 1994 election, Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla received 33.3% of the vote and thus defeated Mireya MOSCOSO, his closest competitor with 29.1% of the vote.
Population and number of registered voters:
  • Population: 2,735,943 (July 1998 estimate)
  • Number of registered voters: 1,746,894
Of Interest:
  • The May 1999 elections took place eight months before the hand over of control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999.
  • The 1999 polls were be the second presidential and general legislative elections since democracy was re-established in Panama in 1990.
For additional information: IFES ElectionGuide Online


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