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How Facebook User Data Was Used; CEO Mark Zuckerberg Break His Silence; South Korean Delegation To Visit Pyongyang; Destination India; Tomorrow's Heroes. Aired at 8-9a ET
Aired March 22, 2018 - 08:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
[08:00:00] (COMMERCIAL BREAK)
ANNA COREN, CNN ANCHOR: Hello, I'm Anna Coren in Hong Kong. Welcome to News Stream.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
COREN: An exclusive television interview. Laurie Segall sits down with Facebook's CEO on camera for the first time since the data scandal broke.
Mark Zuckerberg says Facebook shouldn't have given as much trust to app developers, and it will not happen again. And on trying to sway elections,
he says there are continued attempts to influence voters, and Facebook has to be more proactive to stop it.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
COREN: Facebook's CEO is finally breaking his silence over the Cambridge Analytica scandal. Today, Mark Zuckerberg said nothing as lawmakers and
investors demanded answers on how 50 million Facebook users had their personal information accessed, and used without their knowledge.
Well, now Zuckerberg says he's trying to fix things. We have the exclusive interview in just a moment, but first, Drew Griffin has the background to
the data scandal.
DREW GRIFFIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: The reason Facebook is under fire is the ease with which a researcher was able to use Facebook to harvest the
personal information of tens of millions of Americans, then transfer all that personal information to a data analytics company that would eventually
work for Donald Trump's campaign.
That firm, Cambridge Analytica, denies any of its work on the 2016 election, used the Facebook data to target voters. But Christopher Wylie,
the former U.K.-based Cambridge Analytica employee turned whistleblower, says at the core of the company's activities was the access Facebook
CHRISTOPHER WYLIE, FORMER EMPLOYEE, CAMBRIDGE ANALYTICA: So, we went from no data to, you know, harvesting all of this data off of Facebook, and then
combing it with all this -- you know, the consumer data sets, and voter data sets.
So, you know, we had sort of a -- you know, Steve Bannon and a billionaire breathing down our necks trying to, going you know, where is the data,
where is the algorithm, where is our, you know, information weapon. And that's where Kogan came along, Aleksandr Kogan, the Professor at Cambridge.
GRIFFIN: Aleksandr Kogan is the Cambridge University Researcher, who in 2014 developed an app, a Facebook personality test called This Is Your
Digital Life. Two hundred seventy thousand people voluntarily took the personality test.
But what no one who took the test knew is that Kogan's app opened the door to all their personal information, and to all of those voluntary Facebook
responders' friends, and their friends, and so on, tens of millions of people.
Facebook says Kogan misled them, that he was supposed to only use the data for research. Instead, he collected it and sold it. But Kogan doesn't
believe he did anything wrong.
ALEKSANDR KOGAN, RESEARCHER, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY: Because the reality is that our app wasn't special. It was completely commonplace. There are
thousands if not tens of thousands of apps doing the exact same thing.
GRIFFIN (voice over): Now the Attorneys General of at least three states are demanding answers, Congress demanding Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg to
testify. Even government officials in the U.K. want executives from Facebook and Cambridge Analytica to explain how a research app led to the
exploitation of the personal data of millions. Drew Griffin, CNN, Atlanta.
COREN: Well, on this exclusive interview with Laurie Segall, Zuckerberg addressed the issue for the first time, and he apologized, especially for
what he calls a major breach of trust.
LAURIE SEGALL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: I want to start with just a basic question, Mark. What happened? What went wrong?
MARK ZUCKERBERG, CEO, FACEBOOK: So, this was a major breach of trust. And I'm really sorry that this happened. You know we have a basic
responsibility to protect people's data, and if we can't do that, then we don't deserve to have the opportunity to serve people.
So our responsibility now is to make that this doesn't happen again. And there are a few basic things that I think we need to do to ensure that.
One is making sure that developers like Aleksandr Kogan, who got access to a lot of information, and then improperly used it, just don't get access to
as much information going forward.
So we are doing a set of things to restrict the amount of access that -- that developers can get going forward. But the other is we need to make
sure that there aren't any other Cambridge Analyticas out there, right, or folks who have improperly accessed data.
[08:05:01] So, we're going to go now, and investigate every app that has access to a large amount of information from before we locked down our
platform. And if we detect any suspicious activity, we're going to do a full forensic audit.
SEGALL: Facebook has asked to us share our data, to share our lives on this platform, and wanted us to be transparent. And people don't feel like
they've received that same amount of transparency. They are wondering what is happening to their data. Can they trust Facebook?
ZUCKERBERG: Yes. So, one of the most important things that I think we need to do here is make sure that we tell everyone whose data was affected
by one of these rogue apps, right? And we're going that. We're going to build a tool where anyone can go, and see if their data was a part of this,
SEGALL: And the 50 million people that were impacted, they will be able to tell if they were impacted by this?
ZUCKERBERG: Yes. We're going to be even conservative on that. So, you know, we may not have all the data in our system today, so, anyone whose
data might have been affected by this, we're going to -- we're going to make sure that we tell.
And going forward when we -- when we identify apps that are similarly doing sketchy things, I'm going to make sure that we tell people then too, right?
And that's definitely something that, you know, looking back on this, you know, I regret that we didn't do at the time, and I think we got that
wrong, and we're committed to getting that right going forward.
SEGALL: I want to ask about that because when it came to light, you guys knew this a long time ago, that this data was out there. Why didn't you
tell users? Don't you think users have the right to know that their data is being used for different purposes?
ZUCKERBERG: So, yes. And let me tell you what we -- what actions we took. So in 2015, some journalists from The Guardian told us that they had seen
or had some evidence that data that this app developer, Aleksandr Kogan, who built this personality quiz app, and a bunch of people used it, and
shared data with it, had sold that data to Cambridge Analytica and a few other firms.
And when we heard that -- and that's against the policy, right? I mean, you can't share data in a way that people don't know, or don't consent to.
We immediately banned Kogan's app.
And further, we made it so that Kogan, and Cambridge Analytica, and the other folks with whom he shared the data, we asked for a formal
certification that they had none of the data from anyone in the Facebook community, that they deleted it if they had it, and that they weren't using
And they all provided that certification. So as far as we understood around the time and that episode, there was no data out there.
SEGALL: So why didn't Facebook follow up? You know, you say you certified it. I think -- why wasn't there more of a follow up? Why wasn't there an
audit then? Why does it take a big media report to get that proactive approach?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, I don't know about you, but I'm used to when people legally certify that they're going to something, that they do it. But I
think of this as clearly a mistake in retrospect.
SEGALL: That putting too much trust in developers?
ZUCKERBERG: And I think it did. And that's why -- you know, we need to make sure that we don't make that mistake ever again, which is why one of
the things that I announced today is that we are going to do a full investigation into every app that had access to a large amount of data from
around this time before we lock down the platform.
And we're now not just going to take people's word for it, and want to give us a legal certification, but if we see anything suspicious, which I think
that there probably were signs in this case that we could have looked into, we are going to do a full forensic audit.
SEGALL: How do you know there aren't hundreds more companies like Cambridge Analytica that are also keeping data that violates Facebook's
ZUCKERBERG: Look I think the question here is, do -- are app developers who people given access to their data, are they doing something that people
Or are they selling the data in a way that people don't want? Or they are giving it to someone that they don't have authorization to do? And this is
something that I think we now need to go figure out, right? So, for all these apps...
SEGALL: That's got to be a -- I got to say that's going to be a really challenging ordeal. How do you actually go do that? Because you talk
about it being years ago, and then you guys have made it a bit stricter for that kind of information to be shared. But backtracking on it, it's got to
be really difficult to find out where that data has gone, and what other companies have shady access.
ZUCKERBERG: Yes, I mean, as you say. I mean, the good news here is that we already changed the platform policies in 2014. But before that, we know
what the apps were that had access to data. We know how much -- how many people were using those services. And we can look at the patterns of their
And based on that, we think we'll have a pretty clear sense of whether anyone was doing anything abnormal. And we'll be able to do a full audit
of anyone who is questionable.
SEGALL: Do you expect -- do you have any scale?
[08:10:00] Or any scope of what you expect to find, anything in the scope of what happened with Cambridge Analytica where you had 50 million users?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, it's hard to know what we'll find, but we're going to review thousands of apps. So, this is going to be an intensive process,
but this is important.
I mean this is something that, in retrospect, we clearly should have done upfront with Cambridge Analytica. We shouldn't have trusted the
certification that they gave us. And we're not going to make that mistake again.
COREN: That was Facebook CEO, Mark Zuckerberg speaking to our Laurie Segall there. We'll play the second half of that interview shortly, but
let's get more on what was said, and the latest on the fallout.
Our Isa Soares joins us from London. Isa, what has been the reaction to Mark Zuckerberg's interview, not just with CNN, but with several other
media outlets that he's spoken to. Is there a level of satisfaction with his answers? Or does it fall short considering the anger that is out there
in the community?
ISA SOARES, CNN CORRESPONDENT: I think overall, Anna, fall short is little bit too little too late to many people. Remember before that interview
with CNN, he put out statement on Facebook, and where in that statement, there was no apology.
In fact, he played the victim of manipulation, but in many ways in that interview -- exclusive interview with Laurie Segall, and in that statement
that we've seen from Facebook, too, though he didn't answer many of the crucial questions.
And these are the questions that we have been asking for days now, which is, have you contacted those 50 million people whose data has been
weaponized by Cambridge Analytica? Why didn't you do something about this when you flew about this back in 2015?
He said in that interview as we just played out, a Guardian came to them in 2015, and warned them. Why didn't you do anything then? Why didn't you
speak out then? And crucially, why has it taken you so long to come out, and actually talk about this, to actually calm people's nerves, and
You've seen the value of their share, something like $50 billion being wiped off at their shares, but let me give you a taste of some of the
reaction on social media. If we can bring up one of the tweets I picked out.
And this gentleman says, Mark Zuckerberg's apology rings hollow, he says. Facebook has almost single-handedly destroyed our constitutional right to
privacy, and helped an American dictator steal an election. We need our democracy back.
Talking about how Facebook may have played a role, or facilitate a role in the U.S. election in 2016. But we also heard from the E.U. President --
the European President Antonio Tajani who tweeted this, if we can bring it up.
He said, Mark Zuckerberg's statement is a step in the right direction, but many questions remain unanswered. I look forward to him giving further
explanations before the elected representatives of over 500 million European citizens.
Worth reminding our viewers that Europe appear -- many lawmakers want to hear from Facebook, wanted those questions answered. And finally this
tweet from one Twitter here.
Facebook, Zuckerberg explanation of not knowing is he says -- Maria says, pardon me, a lot of rubbish. He betrayed us. On his website, he says data
will not be disclosed. Fifty-thousand data is not exactly a picture in there.
He must have been paid for it. So, Anna, I don't think it's calming anyone's nerves. I think the trust -- their lack of trust is still there,
and I think Facebook has a lot more work to do in order to regain that trust.
COREN: You know, certainly it will be interesting to see whether his apology will stem the flow of people who are deleting their Facebook
Isa Soares, always good to see you. Many thanks for that. Well, coming up, part two of CNN's exclusive interview with Mark Zuckerberg. Why the
Facebook CEO says he's open to regulation of social media. That's next.
[08:15:00] (COMMERCIAL BREAK)
COREN: Welcome back to News Stream live from Hong Kong. Facebook's CEO Mark Zuckerberg has apologized for not doing enough to stop a company from
collecting data on tens of millions of users without their knowledge.
But he insists Facebook is taking action to make sure it never happens again. Well, here is part two of his exclusive interview with CNN's Laurie
ZUCKERBERG: If you told me in 2004, when I was getting started with Facebook, that a big part of my responsibility today would be to help
protect the integrity of elections against interference by other governments, you know, I wouldn't have really believed that that was going
to be something that I will have to work on 14 years later.
SEGALL: I'm going to challenge you.
ZUCKERBERG: Well, we're here now.
SEGALL: I'm going to challenge you.
ZUCKERBERG: And we're going to make sure that we do a good job at it.
SEGALL: Have you done a good enough job yet?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, I think we will see. But, you know, I think what's clear is that in 2016, we were not as on top of a number of issues as we
should have, whether it was Russian interference, or fake news.
Although what we have seen since then is, you know, a number of months later there was a major French election, and in there, we deployed some
A.I. tools that did a much better job of identifying Russian bots, and basically Russian potential interference, and weeding that out of the
platform ahead of the election. And we were -- we were much happier with how that went.
In 2017, last year, during the special election in the Senate seat in Alabama, we deployed some new A.I. tools that we built to detect fake
accounts that were trying to spread false news, and we found a lot of different accounts coming from Macedonia.
So, you know, I think the reality here is that this isn't rocket science, right? And there's a lot of hard work that we need to do to make it harder
for nation-states like Russia to do election interference, to make it so that trolls and other folks can't spread fake news, but we can get in front
And we have a responsibility to do this, not only for the 2018 midterms in the U.S., which are going to be a huge deal this year, and that's just a
huge focus for us.
But there's a big election in India this year, there's a big election in Brazil, there are big elections around the world, and you can bet that we
are really committed to doing everything that we need to, to make sure that the integrity of those elections on Facebook is secured.
SEGALL: I can hear the commitment, but since I got you here, do you think that bad actors are using Facebook at this moment to meddle with the --
with the U.S. midterm elections?
ZUCKERBERG: I'm sure someone is trying, right? And I'm sure that there is V2 of all -- version two of whatever the Russian effort was in 2016, I'm
sure they are working on that, and there are going to be some new tactics that we need to make sure that we observe, and get in front of, which is...
SEGALL: Do you know what the -- speaking of getting in front of them, do you know what they are? Do you have any idea?
ZUCKERBERG: Yes, and I think we have some sense of the different things that we need to get in front of.
SEGALL: Are you specifically saying bad actors try to meddle with the U.S. election now?
ZUCKERBERG: I'm not a 100 percent sure what that means. Because it's not -- I think that the candidates are going to find all that.
SEGALL: Are you seeing anything new or interesting?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, what we see -- what we see are a lot of folks trying to sew division, right? So that was a major tactic that we saw Russia try to
use in the 2016 election.
Actually most of what they did was not directly, as far as we can tell from the data that we've seen, was not directly about the election, but was more
about just dividing people.
And you know, so they'd run a group on -- you know, for pro-immigration reform, and they'd run another group against immigration reform, and just
try to pit people against each other.
And a lot of this was done with fake accounts that we could do a better job of tracing, and using A.I. tools to be able to scan, and observe a lot of
what is going on, and I'm confident that we're going to do a much better job.
SEGALL: Lawmakers in the United States and the U.K. are asking you to testify.
[08:20:01] Everybody wants you to show up. Will you testify before Congress?
ZUCKERBERG: So the short answer is I'm happy to, if it's the right thing to do. You know, Facebook testifies in Congress regularly on a number of
topics, some high profile and some not. And our objective is always to provide Congress, who does an extremely important job, to have the most
information that they can.
We see a small slice of activity on Facebook, but Congress gets to, you know, have access to the information across Facebook, and all other
companies, and the Intelligence Community, and everything. So what we try to do is send to the person at Facebook who will have the most knowledge
about what Congress is trying to learn.
So if that's me, then I am happy to go. What I think we've found so far is the typically there are people whose whole job is focused on an area, but I
would imagine at some point that there will be a topic where I am the sole authority on it, and that would make sense for me to do it, and I'll be
happy to do it at that point.
SEGALL: You are the brand of Facebook. You are the name of Facebook. People want to hear from you.
ZUCKERBERG: And that's why I'm doing this interview. But, you know, I think that there is -- the question in a question of congressional
testimony is what is the goal, right?
And that's not a media opportunity, right? Or at least it is not supposed to be. The goal there I think is to get Congress all the information that
they need to do their extremely important job.
And we just want to make sure that we send whoever is best informed at doing that. I agree separately that there is an element of accountability
where I should be out there doing more interviews.
And you know, as comfortable -- uncomfortable as it is for me to do, you know, a T.V. interview, I think this is an important thing that as a
discipline for what we are doing, and I should be out there, and being asked hard questions by journalists.
SEGALL: Knowing what you know now, do you believe Facebook impacted the results of the 2016 election?
ZUCKERBERG: That's -- that is hard. You know, I think that it is -- it's really hard for me to have a full assessment of that. You know, it's the -
- the reality is, well, there were so many different forces at play.
The organic posting that people did, the get out to vote campaigns that we ran, the pages that both candidates run, the advertising that they did, I'm
sure that all of that activity had some impact.
It's hard for me to assess how much that stacked up compared to all of the campaign events, and advertising that was done off of Facebook, and all of
the other efforts. And I think it's also hard to fully assess the impact of that, and that organic activity which we are actually quite proud of...
SEGALL: And also the bad actors.
ZUCKERBERG: And the bad stuff. That's something.
SEGALL: You know, I think that...
ZUCKERBERG: So I think it is hard to fully assess.
SEGALL: Given the stakes here, why shouldn't Facebook be regulated?
ZUCKERBERG: I actually am not sure we shouldn't be regulated. You know, I think in general technology is an increasing -- increasingly important
trend in the world, and I actually think the question is more, what is the right regulation rather than yes or no, should it be regulated?
SEGALL: What's the right regulation?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, there are some basic things, then I think that there are some big intellectual debates. On the basic side, you know, there are
things like ads transparency regulation that I would love to see.
If you look at how much regulation there is around advertising on T.V. and print, you know, it's just not clear why there should be less on the
internet, right? We should have the same level of transparency required.
And, you know, I don't know if a bill is going to pass. I know a couple of Senators are working really hard on this, but we are committed, and we've
actually already started rolling out ad transparency tools that accomplish most of the things that are in all the bills that people are talking about
today because we just think that this is an important thing.
People should know who is buying the ads that they see on Facebook, and you should be able to go on any page, and see all the ads that people are
running to different audiences.
SEGALL: How has being a father changed your commitment to users, changed your commitment to their future, and what a kinder Facebook looks like?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, I think, having kids changes a lot, and...
SEGALL: Like what?
ZUCKERBERG: Well, you know I used to think that the most important thing to me by far was, you know my having the greatest positive impact across
the world that I can, and now I really just care about building something that my girls are going to grow up and be proud of me for.
And I mean that's what is kind of my guiding philosophy at this point is, and you know I kind of work on a lot of hard things during the day, and I
go home, and just ask will my girls be proud of what I did today?
COREN: Well for more on Zuckerberg's exclusive interview with CNN, let's bring in Samuel Burke live from Miami, Florida. Samuel, many people feel
that there's a lot that Zuckerberg did not address or did not answer in these interviews including the need for an audit to fully understand what
[08:25:08] But we know that journalists told him that Cambridge Analytica was doing what it was doing back in 2015. And so how do we make sense of
SAMUEL BURKE, CNN TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT: And that is the most important part that he says we can't really know until this audit
finishes. Well, this has to be one of the longest audits in history because if it starts in 2015, we know they started investigating it.
Then, surely they're launching another audit, but come on that's nearly three years, and then if we go through these steps that Mark Zuckerberg
laid out, in his post yesterday, and discussed with Laurie, you go tough them one by one.
And it's very difficult to understand some of them starting with the fact that they're going to investigate all these apps that had large amounts of
data. Why are they waiting till just now? Why didn't they start doing that in 2015?
Not just the Professor who had the original app here, the personality test. Why not all these thousands of other apps? Why, just because the media
attention is on them now, did they wait?
Number two, they're going to restrict more apps. Well, why are they even giving these apps data in the first place? This isn't how Facebook makes
the core of its money. They make it through ads. The advertisers don't get your data, so why should the apps get any of our data?
And number three, a new tool to better understand apps, Anna. Well, they always talk about doing these new tools, and they follow through, and they
But for instance, the Russia tool, which is supposed to help Americans understand if they saw message from Russia, that's only available on the
desk top, not available on the mobile version.
This is a company that brags about being so mobile, that more users use it mobile than desktop, and then they don't make the tools -- the transparency
tools available to people on mobile. It leaves some big questions.
COREN: Yes, let's further discuss though the measures that Zuckerberg announced to improve Facebook's handling of the user data and security. Do
they go far enough? Should Facebook users feel reassured?
BURKE: Well, they didn't say we're going to cutoff data access to some other professor who might create an app. They say we're going to look at
it. We're going to restrict more of it. They didn't say we're going to eliminate it.
Why should Facebook share any of our information? Mark said in his interview with Laurie, there's this misconception that we sell data. He is
correct. That's a misconception. They don't actually sell data so why are they giving it away if they are not making any from it?
I mean, this is a bad business policy it would appear on the surface, and certainly it's making a lot of users uncomfortable. And I think there are a
lot of big questions here, and this is the reason why we see this stuff, even though it's gone up now in the past 24 hours.
But it hasn't erased all the losses of tens of billions of dollars, and that people are finally realizing both the psychological effects, and the
privacy effects of Facebook.
Here's a network that reaches 2 billion people unprecedented in the history of the human race, but it doesn't feel like they quite know the power of
their own network, or they're just willing to turn the cheek and not realize it.
COREN: Samuel Burke bringing it us all, breaking it down for us from Miami, Florida. Good to see you. Many thanks for that. Well, they wowed
the Winter Olympics, and now the K-pop group Red Velvet is one of the biggest names performing in Pyongyang next week.
A South Korean delegation is heading to the North Korean capital, more in just a moment. Plus, now the series of Destination India, we get an
exclusive look at one of the country's architecture marvels, the Chandigarh Capitol Complex. What one of the architects said about being part of such
a bold experiment, that's coming up.
[08:30:00] (COMMERCIAL BREAK)
ANNA COREN, CNN HOST: Hello. I'm Anna Coren in Hong Kong. You are watching "News Stream." These are your world headlines.
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg is apologizing to users for "major breach of trust," allowing outside consultants to harvest the personal data of
millions of users without their consent. He says Facebook is working to make sure user data is better protected and he even said he was willing to
testify before U.S. Congress on the scandal.
Russia's ambassador to Britain is holding a news conference at the embassy in London. This follows the expulsion of Russian diplomats in the wake of
the nerve agent poisoning that led the former spy and his daughter in hospital. Alexander Yakovenko says Moscow has not received any information
from British officials on the investigation. He also says the U.K. had stores of Novichok believed to be the nerve agent used before the attack.
Police in Austin, Texas say the suspect in a series of bombings left a confession on his cellphone which he recorded before he killed himself.
Federal agents say 23-year-old Anthony Conditt also had parts of bombs in his home. Investigators say so far none of the evidence points to a motive.
Despite a possible trade war, Donald Trump is expected to announce new U.S. tariffs on Chinese imports. That's on top of the steel and aluminum tariffs
already going into effect Friday. The European Union is hoping Mr. Trump will announce a last minute exemption for them later Thursday as E.U.
leaders meet in Brussels.
A group of six South Korean officials is on a visit to Pyongyang, North Korea. It comes ahead of a visit by a music group that is expected to
perform there next week. Let's go straight to Alexandra Field in Seoul. Alex, what can you tell us?
ALEXANDRA FIELD, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Hey, Anna. Look, this is another step forward leading to what will be a symbolic event. It may pale
somewhat in comparison to the even more significant developments. We talked about the possibility of this inter-Korean summit next month and then the
possibility of a sit down between the North Korean leader and the U.S. president following that.
But look, this is a symbolic step forward. We literally got a team that is now on the ground in Pyongyang ready to lay the groundwork for a cultural
exchange that will mean about 160 South Korean delegates traveling to North Korea. Among them, you've got a big rock band, you've got some legendary
South Korean singers, even one of the country's most popular K-Pop girl band.
This will be an important moment. This cultural exchanges have happened before but nothing like this has happened for more than 10 years. That was
the last time that South Korea sent a group of performers to North Korea.
You will remember of course that just a few weeks ago, North Korea did send its own performers to South Korea, part of the Olympic festivity, part of
the falling of the tensions on the peninsula finally, and this is another step in the service of falling those tensions.
This whole thing has really come together extremely rapidly following that Olympics sort of interlude that we saw there. There was the trip of South
Korean envoys to Pyongyang. That was the time when they met directly with Kim Jong-un. And that's when they hatched these pretty grand plans.
One for cultural exchange but also that's when they laid the plans for this inter-Korean summit that will take place next month and it was shortly
after that trip that we heard from South Korean official who traveled to Washington, D.C. that the groundwork had been laid for this historic
potentially summit between President Donald Trump and the North Korean leader.
So, the cultural exchange is really just the first step forward in a series of steps as we watch the relationships here potentially change. But it's
something that is promising certainly and it's something that people will be watching closely. It happens just next week and we will certainly be
bringing it to you.
COREN: We can only hope that those relations can keep improving.
[08:35:00] Alexandra Field, joining us from Seoul, good to see you. Many thanks for that.
This week, our special coverage takes us to India, exploring its diverse cultures and traditions. In this edition of "Destination India," we travel
to Chandigarh, the capital city shared by two states, Punjab and Haryana. We gained exclusive access to the Capitol Complex which in 2016 was awarded
World Heritage status by UNESCO.
SUMIT KAUR, FORMER CHIEF ARCHITECT, CHANDIGARH ADMINISTRATION: Chandigarh (INAUDIBLE). It did have a history of its own. Soon after partition in
1947, Punjab has lost its capital Lahore to Pakistan. The central government headed by our prime minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, had a
great vision. Celebrate independence. Build a modern India.
Chandigarh was supposed to create a blueprint. For this, they wanted to engage the best of talents and Corbusier (ph) was the first choice. The
architectural genius create such magnificent building. The monumental edifices of Chandigarh. They speak of the democracy of the country. You
have the high court legislative assembly and the secretary. All these prime functions are placed as the head of the city.
The city is designed on the anatomy of a human being. The city center is actually the heart of the city. And then you have the limbs, the working
areas. And the lungs are the green (INAUDIBLE).
A small infrastructural piece, I would say manhole cover, which normally people would neglect to think of that as an important element of design and
to project the plan (INAUDIBLE) to emboss it so that whenever you're walking the streets of Chandigarh or even right in front of your house, you
are reminded that you are part of this larger vision.
This was a new model. This was architecture in fact spelled out a new social order. Buildings can have a big role to play in how we manage and
cultivate human life and human beings. I think this is what makes Chandigarh unique. (INAUDIBLE) to so many people, particular to me. The
city and me have grown up almost together. I owe the city immensely.
COREN: Still ahead on "News Stream," we will meet a young man who is trying to change the world by turning organic waste into renewable clean
fuel. Tomorrow's hero is next.
[08:40:03] COREN: A beautiful evening here in Hong Kong. Welcome back to "News Stream." For the next few weeks, CNN is telling stories of young
scientist, entrepreneurs, and inventors in a new special series. Their inspiring innovations will surely make a difference in improving our
environment, health, and communities.
Dr. Sanjay Gupta introduces us to one of tomorrow's heroes. He is using organic waste to make renewable energy.
SANJAY GUPTA, CNN SENIOR MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: This planet earth is the only one we've got. Yet every day we pump massive amounts of pollution into
the atmosphere. Tomorrow's hero, Leroy Mwasaru, is working to convert waste into renewable fuel to help save our trees and our planet.
LEROY MWASARU, INVENTOR: In high school, I used to walk around with a notebook. I used to note down the different problems that I saw each and
every day. But then this problem came up and there was no way I was going to ignore it. I chose to address this one because it affected many people.
My name is Leroy Mwasaru. I'm 20 years old. And I'm from Kenya. My invention is Greenpact. Greenpact is a conscious social enterprise that's
offering green renewable solutions which is biogas energy. Greenpact begun as a high school project where we utilized human waste and organic waste
and we used that to generate biogas and fertilizer to cook light meals in the kitchen for the school.
Human waste bioreactor works using the principle of anaerobic respiration. Human waste doesn't have a significant level of energy, so we supplement
this with organic waste. You put something in a container and restrict air from it. You get energy, and that energy is CH4, which is methane, and that
methane is what is useful as biogas. So that CH4 once it goes through a filtering process. You remove the hydrogen sulfide. We're able to get pure
Using these biogas systems, we'll actually find that they actually have no waste because what comes in as a feed will eventually come out as biogas
and the sludge which comes out of the system is very clean organic fertilizer. We envision this solution to Kenyans who are not able to
purchase nonrenewable sources of energy.
The more we continue harming the environment with non-renewable sources of energy, the more we continue depleting the environment. My vision for this
invention is that it's something that will be replicated and be able to grow, not only in size but also in impact.
There's still a lot that has to be done especially on the African continent in terms of utilizing the number of resources that we have at hand. And I
think I'd be best placed to be able to solve these problems that we face as a continent.
COREN: And that is "News Stream." I'm Anna Coren. Thanks so much for your company. Don't go anywhere. "World Sport" with Alex Thomas is coming up
next here on CNN.
[08:45:00] (WORLD SPORT)