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Aired January 7, 2002 - 04:30   ET


ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.


SUSAN FREIDMAN, CO-HOST: And I'm Susan Freidman.

As air strikes pound eastern Afghanistan, the United States takes custody of more al Qaeda and Taliban prisoners. The allied strikes are focusing on an area near the Pakistan border. It's an apparent attempt to flush out suspected al Qaeda and Taliban members trying to flee into Pakistan from Afghanistan.

MCMANUS: Meanwhile, tensions remain high along the India- Pakistan border. Indian military officials say their soldiers shot down an unmanned Pakistani spy plane that intruded into Indian airspace in the disputed region of Kashmir. Pakistan officials deny those reports. And this adds to tensions that escalated with an attack on India's parliament last month.

As our Joel Hochmuth reports, leaders of both countries left a summit this weekend without agreement on how to ease to those tensions.


JOEL HOCHMUTH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): There were no major breakthroughs over the weekend in reducing the tensions between India and Pakistan that have led the two nations to the brink of war. There were, however, signs of hope. The two nation's leaders managed to shake hands during a two-day summit of south Asian nations in Nepal and hold some informal conversations.

GENERAL PERVEZ MUSHARRAF, PAKISTANI PRESIDENT: We did meet informally again, but it was not a formal bilateral meeting as you are mentioning, it was an informal interaction. And the same thing with the foreign ministers did also informally meet. And as I said, we only hope that this informal interaction will lead to a formal interaction in the future.

HOCHMUTH: Keeping the peace between India and Pakistan could well depend on such talks. The two nations have already gone to war twice over the divided region of Kashmir. For 12 years, Islamic militants, some based in Pakistan, have been fighting Indian forces and carrying out attacks in the part of Kashmir controlled by India. Tens of thousands of soldiers, rebels and civilians have been killed. Tensions are at the boiling point again after terrorist attacks on the Indian parliament December 13 and on the assembly of Jamu (ph) in Kashmir October 1.

In response, both countries have massed thousands of troops along their border and prohibited all passenger planes, trains and buses from crossing as well. India blames groups based in Pakistan for the attacks and is demanding Pakistan crack down on suspected terrorists before any serious talks begin.

ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE, INDIAN PRIME MINISTER: I'm glad that President Musharraf extended a hand of friendship to me. I have shaken his hand in your presence. Now President Musharraf must follow this gesture by not permitting any activity in Pakistan or any territory in its control today which enables terrorists to perpetrate mindless violence in India.

HOCHMUTH: British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who's in the region hoping to defuse the situation, is also calling on Pakistan to condemn all terrorism. He meets with Pakistan's president Monday after talking to India's Prime Minister on Sunday.

TONY BLAIR, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER: There must be a complete rejection of the types of terrorist act carried out on the 1st of October and the 13th of December, and there's no halfway house for that. And once it is clear that that rejection is there, then I believe, from what the Prime Minister said, that India, provided the threat of terrorism is lifted, then is prepared to have that meeting for dialog.

HOCHMUTH: For its part, Pakistan has arrested nearly 300 Islamic militants over the past week, including the heads of the two groups India claims were behind the attack on parliament.

Still, as CNN's Maria Ressa explains from New Delhi, from Pakistan's viewpoint, cracking down on terrorism is a matter of terminology.

MARIA RESSA, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Pakistan makes a clear distinction between terrorists and freedom fighters. That is what Pakistan calls the groups fighting Indian rule in Kashmir, groups Pakistan admits giving moral and diplomatic support to.

HOCHMUTH: That both countries feel so passionate about Kashmir comes as no surprise. Ever since the British left the region in 1947, both Pakistan and India have claimed the largely Muslim region as their own.

As Ash-har Quraishi reports, troops from both countries are keeping a nervous eye on each other across the line that divides them.


(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) ASH-HAR QURAISHI, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Kashmir, one poet said, it's where the world ends and heaven begins. For centuries, the majestic area has been conquered again and again, passed from ruler to ruler.

The Pakistani army took us on a short tour of a post on the line of control which divides the region of Kashmir between India and Pakistan.

CAPT. SHABBIR, PAKISTANI ARMY: (UNINTELLIGIBLE), a 100 yards there, you can see the stone wall, another Indian post. (UNINTELLIGIBLE) after every 50 to 60 yards.

QURAISHI: The line of control, or cease-fire line, extends from east to west through the region of Kashmir. It's made up of a series of Indian and Pakistani posts zig-zagging across the area connecting to the international border.

In 1999, fighting broke out over the control of a forward post in Cargill (ph). It was one of the bloodiest battles between the two nations in years, leaving hundreds dead.

(on camera): This forward post on the line of control is considered relatively quiet. Pakistani troops sit just across the ravine from their Indian counterparts on the other side. The Jellon (ph) River, just behind me, forms a natural portion of the line of control. With tensions still high here, commanders at this post have been instructed to either apprehend or shoot anyone trying to cross it.

(voice-over): The current troops buildup along the border is considered especially dangerous, not only because of the number of troops involved, but because they are deployed along the entire border between India and Pakistan. Skirmishes over the line of control are routine. Any firing over the international border, however, will be a declaration of war.

Hope that the leaders of these two countries can calm the situation is still strong. But until a diplomatic solution is reached, Indians and Pakistanis sit face to face in Kashmir and along the international border waiting for someone to make a move.

Ash-har Quraishi, CNN, on the Pakistani line of control in Kashmir.


FREIDMAN: The United States is preparing to move Taliban and al Qaeda prisoners from Afghanistan to a U.S. military facility in Cuba. That, as the hunt for Osama bin Laden, Mullah Omar and their top lieutenants and there's a new and some say more dangerous phase.

Kathleen Koch has the story.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) KATHLEEN KOCH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): U.S. military police are shipping to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, readying for the arrival perhaps within days of Taliban and al Qaeda detainees. Also Sunday, allied aircraft attacked position on the Afghan-Pakistan border, near Miram Shah (ph). It's thought tunnels nearby could be hiding al Qaeda and Taliban hold-outs.

Some believe the situation on the ground remains as dangerous as it was before the Taliban fell from power. They point to the shooting of Sergeant 1st Class Nathan Ross Chapman as evidence it's difficult to tell friend from foe.

SEN. BOB GRAHAM (D-FL), CHAIRMAN, INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE: Today, we're dealing with groups of people who represent a mixture of former allies and enemies, and obviously one of those enemies took this as an opportunity to take out his vengeance against a United States military.

KOCH: Meanwhile, the interim leader of Afghanistan says his people are doing their best to route out remaining Taliban leaders, including Mullah Omar.

HAMID KARZAI, AFGHAN INTERIM GOVERNMENT CHAIRMAN: They're all looking for him. He's one man, and one man can easily, you know, hide, can easily take a motor bike and go places.

KOCH: Even if the Afghan population does cooperate, some doubt any al Qaeda will (UNINTELLIGIBLE) about the word of whereabouts of Osama bin Laden.

SEN. DIANNE FEINSTEIN (D), CALIFORNIA: I think we underestimate, first of all, the fanaticism of these people. I think we underestimate what their goal is. I think it's remote that $25 million reward is going to get anyone to turn him in.

KOCH: Top U.S. senators visiting the region quote Uzbek intelligence officials as saying bin Laden has escaped into Pakistan. One former foreign policy adviser warns the U.S. anti-terror campaign should broaden its focus beyond the al Qaeda leader.

HENRY KISSINGER, FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE: He's a fugitive, and our strategy ought to be to get as many of these cells on the run as we can, so that they have to spend their energy surviving rather than planning attacks. But this is not something that can be focused on one man.

KOCH (on camera): Afghan interim leader Hamid Karzai says he believes only 30 to 35 hard-core Taliban and terrorists fighters remain in this country.

For now, U.S. forces there continue the hunt, taking more prisoners, and hoping they provide new clues.

Kathleen Koch, CNN, the Pentagon.

(END VIDEOTAPE) FREIDMAN: After years of war, many Afghans are desperately hoping for peace. Some refugees anxious to return home are counting on a tunnel to facilitate their journey. Hundreds of Afghans walk through the bombed out Salang Tunnel each day while workers struggle to make the route more accessible.

CNN's John Vause brings us a closer look.


JOHN VAUSE, CNN CORRESPONDENT: High in the Hindu Kush Mountains, the Salang Tunnel, a vital link between the north and south, impassable for almost four years since both entrances were blown up by the Northern Alliance to stop a Taliban advance.

But now the tunnel has partially reopened to a steady stream of foot traffic. For thousands of refugees, this has made the journey home so much easier and faster. Like Puma Kahn (ph) and his wife, three children and everything they own. They have traveled from the north to return to the village they fled three years ago.

"This is all I have in my life," he told me. "The rest of my things were stolen by the Taliban or burned. Twice my house was bombed and my 14-year old son was killed."

Puma (ph) and his family will pay one of the many drivers who wait at the tunnel's entrance $40 U.S. to take them the rest of the way.

The other thriving business here, porters. For just a few dollars, they carry back-breaking loads through the tunnel, mostly consumer goods to be sold in the north. Once inside, their journey is not easy.

(on camera): It's about a 30-minute walk from one end of the tunnel through to the other. It's very cold in here, about 20 degrees colder than it is outside. It's also very dusty from the constant foot traffic.

It's also very difficult to see. It's dark in here despite these lights, which they've put up about three weeks ago. But they only work from 8:00 a.m. in the morning to about 3:00 in the afternoon plus they have claustrophobia like I think I just found out I do. It's very uncomfortable to think there's 300 feet of mountain above me.

From the darkness, suddenly groups of people emerge, carrying dim torches or lanterns. But often the only way you know someone is there is by running into each other. In other areas, there are the lights of heavy machinery and where the machines can't go they move the rubble by hand. I stopped to ask these boys how old they are.

VAUSE (on camera): How old?


VAUSE: Fifteen, okay.


VAUSE (voice-over): They work in darkness and dust from early morning to late afternoon.

(on camera): This is the worst of the damage inside the tunnel. We're told that this is in fact the secondary ceiling, which came crashing down during the explosion. They tell us that the structural integrity is still fairly safe, but you have to wonder.

(voice-over): The piles of rubble grow higher toward the northern end, making it hard, slow going for the porters with their heavy loads and families with small children.

(on camera): This is the last section of the tunnel. I can actually see daylight ahead, but it's possibly the most difficult. The rubble is quite high. It's very difficult to get your footing. It's more like an obstacle course. You can imagine it's hot enough without carrying a pack like one of these guys.

(voice-over): Most of the traffic is moving to and from the Kabul region in the south to the northern provinces. Even by struggling through here, the trip can now be measured in hours. Well here it is, the end of the tunnel, the other side, you can finally see daylight. It's not the easiest mile and a half to walk, especially with the goats and all the backpack here. But still, to make the same journey over the mountains would have taken four days.

John Vause, CNN, at the Salang Tunnel, Afghanistan.


FREIDMAN: For many people, the tragedy of September 11 changed lives forever. And as the war on terrorism marches on, many others wait for some sign of things returning to normal. As it turns out, that sign may be as close as your TV set.

Bruce Morton explains.


BRUCE MORTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The war on terror isn't over or nearly over, of course. But something encouraging happened this past week. We newsies seemed to have rediscovered normality. I looked up at one point and CNN was carrying a trial live.

JASON CARROLL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Judy, four witnesses have testified, today...

MORTON: Not a terrorist trial, mind you, but an ordinary manslaughter trial about violence at a children's hockey practice. When was last time you saw something like that on all-news TV? Well, maybe not as long ago as O.J., but it has been a while. And doughtiness is back. Everybody reported that school board in the Eastern York School District in Pennsylvania had voted 7 to 2 to keep using Harry Potter and Sorcerer's Stone to teach 6th-grade kids about fantasy books.

A parent, a preacher and a teacher had complained the book was teaching witchcraft. This, of course, not true. Honestly, the spells don't work. I have tried levitating editors I don't like and flat failed.

Anyway, parents who didn't want their kids to read that book may have poor taste in fiction, but they're safe, too. Their kids will be assigned to a different class.

What else? Everyone carried stories about New York's new mayor and the city's financial problems; terror-related, maybe, but budget stuff at its heart. The city celebrated New Year's, although there was more security than usual.

The president took time out from the war to visit his ranch and inspect his official portrait. Good likeness? What do you think?

CHAD MYERS, CNN CORRESPONDENT: And if you look across the street, you can begin to see now the snow is sticking.

The news media found room for other stories it had nothing to do with terror. Snow in the south, always fun, those pictures of drivers battling half-inch drifts. Snow in Buffalo, where they really speak snow; and experimenting cloning pigs that may make it easier to transplant organs; football games and how mixed up the Bowl system is.

(on camera): All sorts of things, in fact. No Johnny-one-note war on terror this week. Stories about terror, of course, the war isn't over. But they had to share time and space with news about all the other things that were happening in the normal, unterrified world.

Tom Daschle did get one more letter, but it was a fake. And the Senate eventually probably will reopen its Hart Office Building. The feds may be the last to rediscover normality, but they will, eventually.

I'm Bruce Morton.


FREIDMAN: Slowly but sure enough, normalcy is returning -- Michael.

MCMANUS: Indeed it is.

For many, 2001 was a year to forget. It started with an election decided by the Supreme Court. It ended for most with the horror in September. The rest of the year was a blur for some, bittersweet for others, but the new year is here, time for fresh starts. So what's ahead for us?

Garrick Utley looked into a very new 2002.


GARRICK UTLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Imagine a land where you can't get your money out of the bank or the economy and your future are collapsing around you or five presidents in three weeks have been unable to halt the slide. Perhaps in 2002 it's time to cry for Argentina.

(on camera): And what will 2002 bring for the rest of us? Argentina, like terrorism, like the questions hanging over the global economy, are reminders of why this year is already clouded by a sharp sense of apprehension of what lies ahead.

(voice-over): Even the leader of the strongest nation can offer no guarantees.

GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: And the American people realize we have a new culture, and that is one of being vigilant.

UTLEY: Being vigilant against terrorists, which will keep American and other international forces in Afghanistan in 2002. And what will be the next target in this war? Go after Saddam Hussein, say some in the United States, while others ask, how? and at what price? Iraq is not Afghanistan.

And what about vigilance elsewhere in the Middle East? The old leaders of Israelis and Palestinians don't seem to have any new ideas of how to restore peace in 2002. Neither do outsiders, including the United States. And while the terror bombs go off, there is another explosion to think about: the ticking time bomb of youth. More than half of the Arabs today are under the age of 30. Demographics, coupled with discontent, can lead to more upheaval in 2002 and beyond.

(on camera): So where is the good news? In this age of vigilance and vulnerability, let's remember how many of yesterday's enemies have become today's allies in fighting terrorism and trying to make the world a more prosperous place.

(voice-over): Example, China. In 2002, there will be a change of the old guard to a slightly less-old guard, as 59-year-old Hu Jin Tao (ph) is expected to take over as top leader. His job: to keep China's long march to economic prosperity and power on track. The growth rate there is expected to be a solid 7 percent this year.

In Russia, the future's looking slightly better. Economic growth is projected at a healthy 4 percent, as President Putin works to strengthen his ties with the West.

And as for the West, well, 306 million Europeans have a shiny new currency, the euro. They also have a weak economy.

And they're not alone. As the Japanese count their money, they may wonder what it will be worth by the end of the year, as they live through a recession and deflation that just won't end. Which means that the U.S. economy -- battered, but still on top -- will continue to depend on consumers spending their way to slow recovery and overcoming a fear of flying, as they again venture out into the world. American optimism should help, and so should the good news of lower oil prices, projected to hover about $22 a barrel for the year.

(on camera): Of course, no one lives by oil, money or bread alone. The coming year will also be measured by how well we are able to make wherever we live a better town, city, nation and world. One judge of that is justice itself.

(voice-over): In February, Slobodan Milosevic will go on trial, charged with crimes against humanity in what was Yugoslavia. In the United States, all eyes will be on Zacarias Moussaoui, who will be tried in October for his role in the terrorism of last September. And, no doubt, the many of eyes of a media frenzy will follow the trial of Paul Burrell in London this coming week to again feed the public hunger for sensation. Who is he? He was Princess Diana's butler, charged with stealing hundreds of her belongings after her death.

In the end, though, for all of us, to look ahead in 2002 was to look into the unknown and the unknowable. All we can predict is that something out there that we cannot imagine today will happen, will mark this year as it did the last.

Garrick Utley, CNN, New York.


MCMANUS: Our look at 2002 continues now on the tech front. Technology is always changing. Remember the VCR, it's DVDs now. Remember the CD? Well now the MP3 is taking over. Blink and you might miss an electronic gadget that's all the rage.

CNN's Ann Kellan gives us a primer on what you should keep an eye on this year.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Please request command.

ANN KELLAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Gadgets that listen.


KELLAN: And talk balk.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: After one-quarter of a mile turn right.

KELLAN: Digital music players you wear on your wrist. Cell phones linked to handheld computers, and new ways to keep track of the kids, just some of the tech trends this year, Portable, wearable and wireless are the '02 buzz. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's about not having to run wires to every room. It's about being able to bring in a little device that you attach to your phone line, that basically takes your Internet access and makes it available to every room in your house without wires. Sounds really simple, and wireless Ethernet is really the technology that's making that possible.

KELLAN: Look for more security products this year, like this GPS personal locator by Wearify Wireless. Strap it on your children and track their whereabouts on your computer.

(on camera): Little gadgets.

TIM MCNAMARA: Little gadgets. The key is little.

KELLAN (voice-over): Tim McNamara and Steve Gates are loading up a few of the latest gadgets, driving to the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.

STEVE GATES: We're going to have two people in the car, driving 2200 miles. Things need to be small and they need to be entertaining and/or keep us in touch.

KELLAN: Like this PDA cell phone to access the Internet.

MCNAMARA: You can use the phone. You can use the PDA and it also serves as your modem to the wireless connection.

KELLAN: And soon, it's expected you'll be able to send an instant message on that portable device.

Rugged hard drives are increasing capacity of portable music devices. This MP3 by Nomad holds 1,000 hours of CD quality music in its hard drive. Of course, all the music has to be downloaded from your computer.

Digital video cameras continue to shrink. And there's even one, a $2000 Hitachi, records on a disk. No more tape.

(on camera): Is this a first?


KELLAN (voice-over): DVDs are the rage, now outselling VCRs in the U.S. This one is portable. This car version plays on the navigation system's monitor. Only when the car is stopped and in park. Don't want the driver distracted by "The Perfect Storm."

Does DVD mean the end of videotapes?

CARL HOWE, FORRESTER RESEARCH: I think DVDs are certainly going to push them out of the way. And even DVDs themselves, I think, are on their way to being eclipsed by fancier DVDs, DVD-Rs, DVD-RWs. Disks that we can write on and record our own videos, I think, are going to be a big thing in 2002. KELLAN: As we ring out the old, ring up the MP3 phone. As companies this year, will try to merge more functions into one device. Here, you get music and a conversation.

GATES: You're listening to music and you're phone rings.

KELLAN (on camera); It'll interrupt?

GATES: You'll hear the phone ring, and you simply just click on the phone and take that call. And it drops the MP3, drops the music you're listening to.

KELLAN: OK, hold that note.

GATES: Hold that note.

KELLAN: I'll be write back.

GATES: I'll be right with you, yes.

KELLAN (voice-over): And 3-D graphics and video on handheld computers. Could happen this year, according to chipmaker Neomagic. And as more of us hit the road, satellite radio is now an option. Pay a monthly fee and access the variety of stations and formats, many more than you can get on the radio now.

Experts also predict more people will store information at data centers, instead of on their personal computers, so they can access that information from any computer, anywhere. Happy trails.

Ann Kellan, CNN, Washington.

(END VIDEOTAPE) CNN ANCHOR: MCMANUS: Tech trends aside, time to check out what's hot right here and what's not in this new year.

Here's Jeanne Moos with a roundup of this year's ins and outs.


JEANNE MOOS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): If you think in and out are what you do through a door, than you haven't pored over lists like these. P.T. Cruisers are out, Thunderbirds are in. Designer suits are out, HAZMAT suits are in. Cynicism's out, patriotism's in. So in that even XXX porn shops are flying the flag.

It's time for the annual what's in, what's out indoctrination. Our picks come from lists published in "The Washington Post," "New York Newsday" and "The Chicago Tribune."

(on camera): Lasik eye surgery is out, prescription eyeglasses are in.

(voice-over): There you go. You may need your glasses to read that counting chad is out, killing spores is in. Thongs are out, corsets are in. As for last year's fashion necessity, camouflage...

KRISTIN VAN OGTROP, EXEC. EDITOR, "GLAMOUR": No one is wearing it, except if they're in combat.

MOOS: And "Glamour" magazine's executive editor says loose the leather.

VAN OGTROP: Suede is really big for 2002. Bond is the 2001 kind of head-to-toe Harley Davidson leather business.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I'm wearing all leather, so you know, it can't be out, because I'm usually quite fashionable.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think that big jeans are going to be hot in the future.

MOOS (on camera): With pink balls?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Not necessarily pink balls.

MOOS (voice-over): That's a relief.

"Newsweek" says vacation service is out, photo IDs are in. The Delta shuttle are in, the train service is in. Hay fever is out, acid reflux is in.

Which brings us to food. "Bon Appetit" says comfort foods are hot.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: There's been a return to high-fat foods. Ice cream sales are soaring. Alcohol sales are soaring.

MOOS: "Bon Appetit" even predicted the next big ingredient.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We choose for the ingredient that's coming in is scallops.

MOOS: Folks on the street had a few in/out suggestions of their own.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: What's really in is a consciousness to be more careful.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Status and image is out.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Gore is really out now.

MOOS: But Rudy is listed as in, even though he's out as mayor.

At the Warren Draconi (ph) salon, flat hair is out.

MOOS (on camera): Like this? This is flat?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's flat. But I love it.

MOOS: Yeah, yeah, yeah.


MOOS: Bed hair?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Bed hair, natural, wavy hair is in.

MOOS (voice-over): Like you just got out of bed.

Speaking of bed, "Newsday" says sex, diamonds and chocolate are always in. "The Washingtonian" lists going postal as out, but postal workers as in.

My son, the doctor is out, my son the firefighter is in. All these in-out lists can leave you feeling listless.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We haven't ever paid any attention.

MOOS (on camera): So you think the lists are out?


MOOS (voice-over): Out, but irresistible. White House briefings out, Pentagon briefings in. The three tenors out, the singing cop in.

And forget this...

(on camera): The high five is out. Do you know what's in?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No. Is it something like that, or what?


See, you know.

(voice-over): The you know the fist bump has gone mass when it moves from sports to corporate mergers.

"GQ" put out an overrated list for 2001. Definitely overrated was the promise of 70 black-eyed virgins for suicide bombers. Whatever you do, don't count on a kid to know what's in our out.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I don't know! I'm only 6!

MOOS: His tongue was in, now it's out.

Jeanne Moos, CNN, New York.


FREIDMAN: Speaking of out, we're out of time. I'm Susan Freidman.

MCMANUS: And I'm Michael McManus. We will see you right back here tomorrow.




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