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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for October 11, 2000

Aired October 11, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET


ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Welcome to NEWSROOM. I'm Rudi Bakhtiar.

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: And I'm Shelley Walcott. Here's the Lineup.

BAKHTIAR: A North Korean milestone tops today's headlines.

WALCOTT: Up next, "Business Desk" examines a U.S. teacher shortage.

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: Hey, guys. I'm Tom Haynes about to tee it up for a big round of golf. I'm going to tell you all about the origins of this historic sport coming up later in "Worldview."

BAKHTIAR: And from the golf course to the science lab, we "Chronicle" the work of Nobel Prize winners.

WALCOTT: A colorful celebration in North Korea. The country marked its 55th year under communist rule Tuesday with a huge parade.

A million North Koreans gathered in the capital, Pyongyang, to pay tribute to leader Kim Jong Il. Unlike past celebrations, this one did not include anti-South Korea slogans or displays of heavy military weaponry. In fact, a number of South Korean leaders were invited to the event. Another indication of North Korea bringing itself out of isolation, the country's second ranking leader is in the United States for three days of meetings.

North and South Korea, bitter rivals divided on the Korean Peninsula, have greatly improved relations over the past several months, most dramatically displayed this summer when families separated by the demilitarized zone were briefly reunited. The reunions were agreed to during a historic summit in June. It was the first time leaders of the two countries met since the Korean War, which ended in 1953, after U.S. and Chinese intervention and the proclamation of a cease-fire.

To this day, no peace treaty has been signed and 37,000 U.S. troops remain in South Korea as a deterrent against possible aggression by the north. BAKHTIAR: As celebrations took place in North Korea, a historic meeting was being held in the United States. The No. 2 leader in the North Korean government, Jo Myong Rok, met with President Clinton and other U.S. officials in Washington.

Mike Chinoy, the only Western journalist in North Korea, has more on Pyongyang's effort at diplomacy and Tuesday's celebration.


MIKE CHINOY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A decade after the collapse of communism almost everywhere else, despite five years of punishing food shortages and economic decline, North Korea staged an enormous celebration.

In a steady drizzle, an estimated million people paraded thorough Kim Il Sung Square to mark the 55th anniversary of the ruling Workers Party, the display involving half the population of Pyongyang.

(on camera): This kind of ritualized political theater is an essential ingredient of North Korea's unique system, channeling the energies of the people into almost constant worship of the man known here as The Great General, Kim Jong Il.

(voice-over): From a rostrum overlooking the square, Kim greeted his adoring subjects. But his No. 2, Vice Marshal Jo Myung Rok, was not at his side. Jo is in Washington for an unprecedented meeting with President Clinton and other U.S. officials.

As is his practice, Kim Jong Il did not speak. Instead, the chants and floats spelled out North Korea's priorities and values.

There was a giant statue of Kim Jong Il's father, the founder of the North Korean state, the late President Kim Il Sung; of the Chollima, the mythical Korean flying horse, said to represent the indomitable spirit of the Korean people; and a giant, smiling potato, symbol of Kim Jung Il's exhortation to grow more potatoes to alleviate food shortages here.

Other uniquely North Korean symbols: the sea of plastic flower bouquets; pink for the Kim Il Sungia, a kind of orchid; red for the Kim Jong Ilia, a hybrid begonia.

And the climax: a rousing rendition of "The Song of General Kim Jong Il," a reminder that, for all the overtures to the outside world, North Korea's leader has no intention of dismantling the system his father created.

The anniversary ceremonies coincide with a dramatic development on the diplomatic front. Indeed, it's no coincidence that Vice Marshal Jo is meeting with President Clinton on the exact day of the party anniversary, or that the visit is being portrayed here as a diplomatic triumph for Kim Jong Il. The talks will cover a host of tough issues.

(on camera): Among them, Washington's demand that the government here expel members of the extreme left-wing Japanese Red Army, who hijacked a jet from Tokyo here in 1970. Otherwise, the U.S says it will keep North Korea on a list of states sponsoring terrorism.

(voice-over): That will prevent this country, which has suffered through food shortages and economic decline for years, from receiving loans and aids from international financial institutions like the World Bank.

Also on the agenda, North Korea's missile program, where the U.S wants a permanent freeze on testing and an end to Pyongyang's exports of missile technology to countries like Iran and Syria.

Washington has consistently rejected North Korean proposals to do so in return for billions of dollars in cash. But during the summer, Kim Jong Il was quoted by Russian President Vladimir Putin as offering to halt exports if other countries would launch North Korean satellites. U.S. officials hope to hear more about that from Vice Marshal Jo, who is also deputy chief of North Korea's powerful military commission.

More broadly, North Korean officials say they want a basic change in the political relationship between Pyongyang and Washington, from hostility to reconciliation.

That process is already well under way with South Korea. Representatives from South Korean civic organizations received an emotional welcome when they arrived at Pyongyang Airport for the anniversary festivities on a special flight from Seoul, four Months after South Korean president, Kim Dae Jung, made a historic visit here.

Some observers have wondered about North Korea's ability to reach out to the world without jeopardizing its tightly controlled political system. But the leadership appears confident of its ability to survive.

Mike Chinoy CNN, Pyongyang, North Korea.


WALCOTT: When you think about growing careers fields, what comes to mind? High-tech jobs such as Internet development or software engineering, right? Well, what you might not know about is the huge demand for teachers. According to demographers -- those are researchers who study population trends -- the echo of the baby boom generation has created this demand. By 2002, the school-aged population will double what is was in 1986. Plus, one out of every three teachers is age 50 or older and nearing retirement. All this translates into lots of open positions.

Yet it's becoming more and more difficult to attract people to the teaching profession.

Bill Delaney tells us why.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) BILL DELANEY, CNN BOSTON BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): Has it ever been harder to be at the head of the class? to be a teacher? Sam Morris doubts it. Preparing her fifth-grade classroom in Watertown, Massachusetts, she and colleagues Mary Callahan and Mary Kate Fitzgerald said they're under fire from parents, politicians, even, in Sam's case, from her own mother.

SAM MORRIS, FOURTH GRADE TEACHER: My mother even bashes me. I mean, my mother loves me but she says, oh, the teachers are the fault of this and the teachers are to blame for that, and I know you're a teacher, but, you know, and it's not you, it's the other teachers.

DELANEY: Teachers, who say this political season's emphasis on education and teacher performance is welcome, so long as it doesn't turn into open season.

MARY CALLAHAN, FIFTH GRADE TEACHER: We're certainly not in this for the money or the glamour, things like that. And to be spoken of so negatively, it's just -- you do, you feel like a political football.

It does, in this climate, give people sort of carte blanche to let us have it, basically.

DELANEY: Critics, teachers say, often simply oblivious to what they're up against in what are also such violent times for many teachers and children.

MARY KATE FITZGERALD, KINDERGARTEN TEACHER: The kids aren't thinking about the three Rs. Are my parents safe? Am I safe? Are my brothers and sisters safe? And I think that, you know, we also have to be aware of that as teachers.

DELANEY: Teachers under attack for a job that still pays, on average, $23,655 less than what similarly educated workers make.

SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION: It's incredibly demoralizing. It absolutely undermines the quality of work that can be done, and it certainly keeps people out of teaching who might well enter teaching.

DELANEY: Why, then, teach?

CALLAHAN: It's a great job. It's a great job because it's so dynamic. If you're excited about what you're teaching, the kids get excited about it, and it's wonderful.

DELANEY: As tens of thousands of the people who give the grades now find themselves graded as never before.

Bill Delaney, CNN, Boston.


BAKHTIAR: In "Worldview," clubs, cubs and censorship. Our stories take us to Europe as we focus on sports, the environment and the World Wide Web. We check out communication controversies. Can one country censor another's Web information? In Russia, we're on the trail of the brown bear. And we head to Scotland for a round of golf. Don't miss our Tom Haynes out on the links.

HAYNES: Scotland has a long and rich history. It's one of the political divisions of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Today, we highlight its culture. You may be familiar with plaid kilts or tartans, which are famous in Scotland. And you've probably heard bagpipe music, too. These are just a couple of things associated with this country.

Today, we look at a sport which had its beginnings in Scotland. In fact, it probably got its name from the Scot verb gowff, which means "to cuff" or "strike hard."

We are going to visit a place known around the world as the home of golf. St. Andrew's Links has borne witness to 600 years of golf history. It's the largest golfing complex in Europe.

Now, while I mark that ball for my next putt, Stephanie Oswald is going to take us to St. Andrews.


STEPHANIE OSWALD, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Set your sights on Scotland, where golfing is as diverse as it is difficult.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Golfing over here on links courses is just totally different from golf in the United States. The grass is different, the traps are very deep and different, the greens are huge and not quite as fast, and the wind blows up to 60 miles an hour.

OSWALD: Scottish courses are famous for the number of professional tournaments played on them. But what draws most golfers here is written in history books: This is where golf began.

Our journey took us to where the fist golf balls were hit. The town of St. Andrews lies on the east coast of Scotland, about 50 miles from the capital of Edinburgh. Many visitors start their tour at the British Golf Museum. Here, the history of the game is chronicled since its beginnings in the Middle Ages.

There are six courses in St. Andrews. The most famous is the Old Course. Centuries ago, it was the splendor of religious buildings surrounding the Old Course that brought pilgrims to town. Today, it's golf that attracts people. And for many, playing here can be somewhat of a religious experience.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Golfing on St. Andrews is like going to Mecca, if you're inclined that way. Everybody in the world wants to play St. Andrews.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's a real thrill for most Americans when they come here. You can see them, you known, when you caddy for them on the first tee, you can see their hands shaking, their legs shaking. OSWALD: There's good reason for that. Golfers tee off right in front of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club. It's the place where the rules of golf are made and governed for much of the world.

Speaking of rules, most of these courses have handicap limits. So if you're planning a trip to Scotland and hope to play on the Old Course, pack a handicap certificate and a letter from a golf club back home.

These nature-made courses aren't always fit for carts, so plan on walking between swings. Most courses have dress codes, and some have rules concerning gender.

(on camera): This is the Himalayas putting green. It used to be the only place women could play golf at St. Andrews. Nowadays, men or women who want a definite tee time here at the Old Course really need to call about a year in advance. For men, the handicap is 28 and under. For women, it's up to 36.

(voice-over): A goal worth striving for, many would argue, for what could be the game of a lifetime.

Stephanie Oswald, CNN, St. Andrews, Scotland.


HAYNES: One of my goals is to eventually get to tee it up in Scotland. But right now, all I have to do is concentrate on getting that ball to that green, a mere 410 yards uphill.

Hey, stick around tomorrow. We'll have more on golf in "Worldview," and we'll be setting our sights pretty high.



TOM MINTIER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Getting out for a game of golf is one thing. How about going up for it -- way up? The top of this 30-story office building has a one-hole golf course for one day.


BAKHTIAR: We travel now to Russia, a huge country that lies in both Europe and Asia. Our destination, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia's far East. While Kamchatka contains Russia's only active volcanoes, it's a cold region known for its sealing, fur-trapping and fishing. It's also home to one of the world's largest populations of brown bears. Brown bears are omnivores, animals which eat both meat and plants. They live up to about 30 years in the wild.

In Russia, as in many other places, the brown bear is endangered. They breed slowly so it's difficult for them to bounce back from losses. And poachers are posing a growing threat, as Gary Strieker explains.


GARY STRIEKER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In these rivers and creeks, there are so many sock-eye salmon, it's almost too much to bear. And for some, eager for lunch, it's hard to decide just where to begin. But this is the tail end of the salmon run in this creek and these bears are restless.

WILLIAM LEACOCK, WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY: The salmon run in this creek is just about played out. We've got a straggler here, a 3-year-old sub-adult. She'll probably stay here and clean up the mess for a while.

STRIEKER: Most of these bears will move to the other side of Karilsky (ph) Lake to other creeks where the sock-eye runs haven't started yet, to feast on still more salmon and to build up the fat reserves they need for hibernation during the long winter ahead.

These bears could not survive without healthy salmon runs like these.

LEACOCK: That's really driving the whole ecosystem here and allowing us to maintain high densities of bears.

STRIEKER: In the South Kamchatka Sanctuary, around Karilsky Lake, the New York-based Wildlife Conservation Society is working with Russian agencies on a joint scientific study of brown bears in Kamchatka.

(on camera): Brown bears are found in Europe, Asia and North America, but here in this sanctuary is one of the largest and most densely concentrated populations of bears on the planet.

(voice-over): It's a legally protected population, but it still faces serious threats from poachers.

Russian scientists say poachers are killing as many as 2,000 bears in Kamchatka every year, with hundreds more killed legally by trophy hunters, causing a dramatic drop in this bear population to between 6,000 and 10,000 animals.

LEACOCK: Obviously, even if we have a population of 10,000 bears here, there's real danger that the densities that we see here in Kamchatka could really, really plummet if these trends continue.

STRIEKER: Another threat is over-harvesting of salmon by poachers, which could wipe out the bear's major source of food. The aim of this study is to find out what kinds of conservation measures are needed to save Kamchatka's brown bears while there's still time.

Gary Strieker, CNN, in the South Kamchatka Sanctuary, Russia.


WALCOTT: Next, we look at a growing global challenge: Internet regulation. Already proven difficult within each country, regulation between countries introduces more complications. For example, the first amendment of the U.S. Constitution protects Internet content regardless of viewpoints expressed. It states that Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech or of the press.

Yet, what happens when American Internet content is accessed in another country? Whose laws apply?

Christian Mahne tells us how national boundaries are weaving a tangled World Wide Web.


CHRISTIAN MAHNE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Keeping the memory of the Holocaust alive at London's Imperial War Museum. But such is the enduring interest in the Third Reich that many items of Nazi memorabilia can readily be found for sale, a practice illegal in France and the basis for a hotly contested legal battle over Internet censorship.

Two pro-Jewish organizations argued that French law should also cover any material available on Web sites seen in France. That would include information held on servers in the United States because they're accessible from France, a direct challenge to the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of expression and a landmark case in the development of the Internet.

FRANK FISHER, INDEX ON CENSORSHIP: If the judgment goes against Yahoo!, it's a disastrous day for the Internet. It will not be a World Wide Web anymore. It's certainly a move towards a global regulation based on geographical borders, of a system that takes no account of geography at the moment.

MAHNE: The French courts asked Yahoo! to examine the possibility of blocking access to certain parts of its site. The core issue: Can Internet service providers be held responsible for the conduct of those using their sites?

JEREL WHITTINGHAM, DURLACHER: Yahoo! have gone out of their way to make it clear that they're not, by making this service available but which other people are using to sell their goods, they're in no way condoning or supporting Nazism.

MAHNE: This battle over content being played out in a French court will go some way towards defining the boundaries of responsibility for the World Wide Web.

Christian Mahne, CNN Financial News, London.


ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There you'll find a rundown of each day's show so you choose just the program segments that fit your lesson plan. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities, and the guide highlights key people, places, and news terms. Each day, find hot links to other online resources and previews of upcoming desk segments. It's all at this Web address, where you can also sign up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy, it's free, it's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops, and neither does learning.

WALCOTT: An engineer who helped launch the Information Age is among the scientists who've been awarded this year's Nobel Prize for physics. Jack Kilby's work on the integrated circuit has affected everything from defense systems to handheld games.

Nobel Prizes are awarded every year. They're presented to scientists who've made important discoveries, to authors who've penned distinguished works of literature, and leaders who've made effective efforts in the interest of world peace.

The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901.

Marsha Walton has more now on some Nobel recipients whose little gadgets have changed our everyday lives.


MARSHA WALTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Imagine balancing your checkbook without one of these, or running a factory without lots of these. From space shots to pacemakers, here's the man to thank.

JACK KILBY, PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE WINNER: The original integrated circuit was not greeted with much enthusiasm by the industry.

WALTON: Retired Texas Instruments engineer Jack Kilby is one of three Nobel Prize winners for physics. He doesn't look or act like a millionaire, but his integrated circuit was the seed that grew the computer revolution.

KILBY: Electronics in 1958 consisted mostly of television, radio, perhaps a half dozen computers. Today, you can't really escape it.

WALTON: Sharing the physics prize, Russian scientist Zhores Alferov. His work on semiconductors set the foundation for modern communications.

ZHORES ALFEROV, PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE WINNER (through translator): It's the physical implementation of high-energy physics.

WALTON: High-energy physics we can all understand, in the form of mobile phones, compact discs, and fiber-optic cable. Alferov used his instant Nobel fame to try and prod the Russian government to restore its legendary research reputation.

ALFEROV (through translator): Science is going to determine the future of this country, and it needs to be supported before anything else.

WALTON: The University of California-Santa Barbara got a double dose of pre-dawn Nobel glory: Herbert Kroemer sharing the physics prize, and awe-struck chemistry winner Alan Heeger.

ALAN HEEGER, CHEMISTRY NOBEL PRIZE WINNER: And i honestly don't remember what was said. I don't.

WALTON: Heeger shares the prize with Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa.

The work of all these scientists has made the global flow of information faster and cheaper. But not everybody buys into all these gadgets.

KILBY: I may be the only person in the room without a cell phone.

WALTON: Marsha Walton, CNN.


BAKHTIAR: Now the story of a scientist who did not win the Nobel Prize. It's the story of a young physicist who nailed the theory of how the universe began, only to see others get the credit. After 50 years, he's still wondering why that happened.

David George spoke with the father of the Big Bang theory.


DAVID GEORGE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In 1948, a 26-year old doctoral student named Ralph Alpher created a stir with the theory that the basic building blocks of the universe were formed in the first five minutes after the Big Bang. Later, he and colleague Robert Herman refined the theory with additional research, and the Big Bang caught on.

PROF. RALPH ALPHER, UNION COLLEGE: It captured public fancy. It satisfied a lot of people.

GEORGE: And it turned Alpher, still not yet 30, into a star. He was invited to meetings like this one in Washington with the likes of Edward Teller, Richard Feynman and Robert Oppenheimer.

ALPHER: There are a lot of people in here who got Nobel laureates later.

GEORGE: But Alpher and his collaborators on the Big Bang theory would not receive the Nobel Prize.

In 1978, two other scientists shared the physics prize for research that essentially replicated Alpher's. Alpher was passed over, forgotten.

What happened?

ALPHER: I have no idea. All I know about the Nobel Prize is, A) I've been told by other people that it's a very political process; B) we were nominated.

GEORGE: Physics laureate Steven Weinberg has written that the means existed even in the 1940s to confirm Alpher's version of the Big Bang, perhaps putting him in line for the Nobel Prize.

ALPHER: But nobody picked it up. They thought it was too difficult or it was too speculative.

GEORGE (on camera): I don't suppose you can ever escape the thought that it could have been...

ALPHER: Yes, it could have been.

GEORGE: And that leaves you?

ALPHER: Leaves us high and dry.

GEORGE (voice-over): Well, not quite high and dry. Five top scientific awards hang on Alpher's living room walls. Now 80 years old, he's tasted glory more than most physicists.

ALPHER: I hesitate to call it glory, but yes, it is. It's the fact that you've contributed to the sum of knowledge and that people who do the same kind of work that you do appreciate that you've done this. So that's a kind of reward in itself.

GEORGE: For Ralph Alpher, the Big Bang's forgotten man, it will have to be reward enough.

David George, CNN, Schenectady, New York.


BAKHTIAR: Wow, the father of the Big Bang theory and no Nobel Prize.

WALCOTT: What could have been.


WALCOTT: Well, that wraps up today's show. We'll see you back here tomorrow.




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