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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for September 8, 2000

Aired September 8, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET


RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Welcome to your last NEWSROOM of the week. I'm Rudi Bakhtiar.

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: And I'm Shelley Walcott. We have a full agenda today. Here's the rundown.

BAKHTIAR: Talk of peace dominates the Millennium Summit at the United Nations.


TONY BLAIR, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER: The need for peacekeeping has never been greater.


WALCOTT: Next, we hop on-line to do a little reading in "Editor's Desk."


GREG VOYNOW, PUBLISH.COM: It gets people into the experience of reading on screen. All of this is new to 99.9 percent of the world. To that extent, I think it's good.


BAKHTIAR: In "Worldview," we find a Mexican staple in a very unusual place.


DAVE JOHNSTON, MISSION FOODS: Europe is a bread market, it is not rice market, and it is not a corn market, it is a wheat, flour bread market. So we've been selling tortillas in Europe for 10 years, and 10 years ago, you wouldn't have found one in the supermarket.


WALCOTT: And in "Chronicle," we head to camp to sow seeds of peace.


ARIEL TAL, 15-YEAR-OLD ISRAELI: We're friends. Stereotypes break in the first few days.


BAKHTIAR: In today's top story, we take you to day two of the Millennium Summit. Once again, heads of state from all over the world convened at the United Nations to tackle the challenges of the 21st century. But it was the urgent need to improve the peacekeeping role of the U.N. that took center stage yesterday.

As Richard Roth tells us, a special session of the Security Council highlighted some deep divides on this crucial issue.


RICHARD ROTH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The elite of the United Nations' Security Council streamed in for a summit-within-a- Millennium-Summit. The council's job is peacekeeping. And the leaders stung by failures from Bosnia to Rwanda would admit it can be done better.

TONY BLAIR, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER: The need for peacekeeping has never been better. And indeed, in certain of the circumstances we can all think of is utterly determinative of the difference between anarchy and some form of stability.

ROTH: During the summit, the bodies of three murdered U.N. aid workers were flown out of West Timor. Recently, hundreds of U.N. peacekeepers were released after being held hostage in Sierra Leone.

PRES. JACQUES CHIRAC, FRANCE (through translator): It is inadmissible for our organization to be held hostage in conflicts.

ROTH: For the summit, the secretary general commissioned a blue- ribbon report with peacekeeping reform recommendations.

KOFI ANNAN, U.N. SECRETARY GENERAL: Summoning the will to act is the only essential first step. Having the ability to act and to act effectively and decisively is the other imperative.

ROTH: But the U.S. must wait two weeks to approve paying for peace operations by law of its own congress. The U.S. president termed the proposed U.N. peacekeeping reform: strong.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: We must do more to equip the United Nations to do what we ask it to do.

ROTH: But when to act is more controversial. Some at the U.N. want to intervene when human rights are threatened, even in a country's backyard.

PRES. JIANG ZEMIN, CHINA (through translator): It is against the will of the vast number of the U.N. member states to act to whatever one likes and bypass the Security Council on major issues.

JEAN CHRETIEN, CANADIAN PRIME MINISTER (through translator): The security of states is essential. But it is not sufficient to ensure the safety and well-being of people.

ROTH: Despite the lack of public agreement, the council voted to approve a resolution upgrading peacekeeping.

(on camera): The Security Council now vows to dispatch troops faster into crisis better equipped and in bigger numbers. As one leader put it, the entire credibility of the moral authority of the U.N. is at stake and the whole world is watching.

Richard Roth, CNN, United Nations.


WALCOTT: Also at the Millennium Summit today: Middle East peace talks. U.S. negotiators are meeting with Israeli and Palestinian leaders in New York. There's still no breakthrough, but U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright says there's been no breakdown either.

A Middle East peace treaty could still be a ways off.

Our Garrick Utley takes a closer look at some other core treaties and how they've impacted world affairs.


GARRICK UTLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Up there on the 32nd floor of the United Nations headquarters is a room reserved for the best of our human aspirations, expressed in words, and then printed on the rich parchment paper of international treaties.

There is an agreement to halt mass murders, genocide; agreements to end racial discrimination and oppression; discrimination against women, against children and migrant workers.

PALITHA KOHONA, DIRECTOR, U.N. TREATY SECTION: Being in the area of human rights, humanitarian rights, commodities, aviation, communications, seas, outer space, a portrait, you name it. These treaties have an impact on the life of average individuals on a day to day basis.

UTLEY: Add them up and there are more than 500 treaties which have been put in the care of the United Nations.

(on camera): There is, of course, something very satisfying about these words put down on paper. They spell out how we want the world to be, how it should be. Treaties, though, are incomplete if they are only words on paper.

Bridging that gap between hope and action is what the United Nations was created to do.

(voice-over): Created in 1945, with the signing of the charter establishing the U.N. Three years later, its members produced a treaty banning genocide. But without effective power to back up its words, could the treaty prevent the ethnic cleansing and killing in Bosnia and Kosovo? No.

Did it stand in the way of the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 in which, it is estimated, 800,000 people were slaughtered? No.

But that treaty 52 years ago did authorize the creation of special international courts to try those accused of mass murder, The Tribunal on Bosnia has indicted 94 persons and tried 17. The tribunal judging the genocide in Rwanda has taken 3 1/2 years to try five of the 43 persons charged.

If the punishment falls short of the magnitude of the crimes, can something more be done?

(on camera): This is the treaty creating an international criminal court. What is the significance of this?

KOHONA: For the first time in history, this establishes a court with jurisdiction over certain crimes, which were committed with impunity in the past.

If you go to Article Eight, for example, there are war crimes listed: willful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, willfully causing great suffering, extensive destruction and appropriation of property.

UTLEY (voice-over): When you search the signatures on the treaty, to see which nations support the new court, there is a notable one missing: the United States. President Clinton did not sign the treaty, because his military leaders feared it would provide a weapon for opponents of U.S. intervention abroad to take legal action against American personnel, accusing them of war crimes.

PROF. MICHAEL SCHARF, DUKE UNIVERSITY: In one way, the United States is an exceptional country because of its military might, its status as the last remaining super power, and because of its exceptional qualities, it believes it should have exceptions to the rule of law that apply to every other country.

UTLEY: So, the United States has not signed the 1997 treaty banning all land mines, saying they are needed to defend South Korea from possible invasion by North Korea.

And although President Clinton did sign the 1996 agreement banning nuclear weapons testing, Congress has not formally ratified the treaty, neither have other nations known or believed to have nuclear weapons, including Russia, China, India, Pakistan, and Israel.

For all the U.N.'s good intentions and hard work, the family of nations has its frictions, feuds and individual self interests to protect. Still, there is progress.

HANS CORREL, U.N. UNDER SECRETARY-GENERAL FOR LEGAL AFFAIRS: The main thing, I think, is that gradually states will understand that, for the future, it is imperative that they base their inter- relationships and the way they treat their citizens on international law. There is no other way for the future. But behind the law, there has to be enforcement to stop the crimes to promote justice. Without action, the world has learned all the signing ceremonies, all the treaties remain words, hopes on paper.

Garrick Utley, CNN, New York.


BAKHTIAR: In today's "Editor's Desk," best-selling author Stephen King is becoming something of a pioneer in the brave new world of cyberspace. He's offering the first two installments of his new serial novel, "The Plant, " on-line. King's venture is just another example of the Internet's dominance, this time in the literary world.

But industry leaders say it's way too early to turn the page on publishing houses. Bill Delaney has the story.


BILL DELANEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In the annals of making a point, consider the plot of Stephen King's new story: A creeping, blood-drinking plant, takes over a publishing company and, as it turns out, there's no publishing company involved in King's new book. You download it from his Web site. Get it?

Well, Jim Milliot, a publishing industry monitor, warns, don't make too much of it.

JIM MILLIOT, "PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY": This is not by any stretch the death knell of publishing houses as we know it. This is a sort of a one-shot deal by a very famous author.

DELANEY: Who's probed cyberspace before, selling 400,000 copies of "Riding the Bullet" there. That time, though, last March, King did keep his publisher in the loop and in the money.

(on camera): King's publisher, Simon and Schuster, declined on- camera comment, but didn't seem all that shook up by its prodigal son. King himself says he remains devoted to his publisher, still loves the smell of glue, as he put it, and, anyway, he's contracted to write four more books.

(voice-over): King's new story, "The Plant," is being offered for a dollar an installment. He'll discontinue the opus, the author says, if more than a fourth of readers try to download it without paying.

Greg Voynow of a new I-publishing venture says the real importance of "The Plant" will ultimately be sowing seeds for new ways of reading.

GREG VOYNOW, PUBLISH.COM: It educates readers as to what e-books are about. It gets people into the down loading habit. It gets people into the experience of reading on screen. All this is new to 99.9 percent of the world. To that extent, I think it's good.

DELANEY: As for a deluge of new authors, each with their own Web page, not likely, says that humble editor at "Publisher's Weekly."

MILLIOT: If I published a book tomorrow and had it up in e-book format, it wouldn't matter if I was doing an end run around publishing. Nobody would buy it.

DELANEY: What's in a name?

Bill Delaney, CNN, New York.


WALCOTT: In "Worldview," we take you around the world and up and down. Think of it as a roller coaster ride, because it is. We'll visit the world's largest such ride in Japan. And we'll serve tortillas in Great Britain, where the traditional Mexican bread is rising in popularity. Plus, an animal adventure featuring penguins in South Africa and dogs in the United States.

It seems that throughout the history of man, there has been man's best friend. The dog is an animal that has lived with people as a pet for more than 10,000 years, longer than any other animal. Over the centuries, breeders have developed about 400 different types of dogs. These breeds include some smaller dogs that provide human companionship, dogs like poodles and terriers. And then there are dogs that perform tasks for humans, like seeing eye dogs. Some sporting dogs were developed to assist hunters who use guns. Breeds in this group include pointers, setters and retrievers.

The one thing breeders have not been able to develop over the years is a pooch with perfect behavior, a shaky reputation that's leaving some New York pups in the dog house.

Jeanne Moos reports.


JEANNE MOOS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A dog that jumps on people, a dog that tells you where to go -- in New York, such a "bad dog" could leave its owner in the doghouse rather than the penthouse.

BARBARA CORCORAN, CHAIRMAN, THE CORCORAN GROUP: What we've noticed is the increase in the requests for dog interviews.

MOOS: Not this kind of interview. She means the kind where a co-op board checks out a dog's behavior before letting its owner buy an apartment in the building. This is not the moment you want your dog to regurgitate a sock.

JULIE GORDON, REAL ESTATE BROKER: This puppy heaved up that sock that had been eaten three days before on the shareholder's oriental rug.

MOOS: Nevertheless, the puppy and its owner were approved. But if you were on the board, would you let folks move in who made this confession about their dog? KATHY CRAFTS, CO-OP BOARD MEMBER: It barked all day long while they were at work, but they were going to a shrink and working on it with the dog.

MOOS (on camera): So what'd you guys do?

CRAFTS: Well, what do you think we did?

MOOS (voice-over): No wonder a New York real estate firm is teaming up with a dog trainer.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's not your cue yet, honey.

MOOS: Brokers at the Corcoran Group will refer their clients to Bash Dibra. The author of "Dog Speak" has trained pets ranging from Henry Kissinger's lab to Madonna's chihuahua. For a fee of $1,000 to 2,000, Bash will train a dog to pass co-op inspection, though one woman found a cheaper way.

CORCORAN: She told us after the fact she had switched dogs and got a look-alike, well-behaved dog that went flying through the board process.

MOOS: Bash recommends against tranquilizing your dog so it stays quiet during its co-op board interview.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The people will see the dog is like...

MOOS: Even once you're approved, the rules are getting tougher. At this Manhattan building, dog owners have to take their pets on the service elevator.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Pay a lot of money to get an -- have an apartment around here, now you're riding the servants' entrance.

MOOS: A dog at this co-op barked so much the board exiled it.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Sending the dog away to camp during the weekdays and allowing the dog then to come back, to return on the weekends to be with the family.

MOOS: To prevent her dog from barking, this woman bought two bark-control collars. One zaps the dog when it barks, but the owner preferred the one that sprays citronella.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I tried both collars myself first and the one...

MOOS (on camera): You wore it?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I did. I barked. The one that zaps you, I jumped to the ceiling.

MOOS (voice-over): Down girl!

Jeanne Moos, CNN, New York. (END VIDEOTAPE)

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: We plunge into penguin territory next to look at a special homecoming. Penguins are flightless birds, but fly underwater using the same motion as birds that fly in the air. All penguins in the wild live south of the equator. On land, they can walk as fast as a human being. In the water, some penguins can dive nearly 900 feet, or 275 meters, and can hold their breath for nearly 20 minutes.

Unfortunately, human activity sometimes interferes with the penguin population; for example, oil spills from ships. Even a small amount of oil in the ocean harms the birds by restricting their feathers' ability to keep them warm. This happened a few months ago when an oil spill threatened a group of South African penguins. Environmental conservationists rehabilitated the penguins on Robbeneiland.

Penny Marshall has the story of their comeback.


PENNY MARSHALL, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A sweet homecoming for the first of Robbeneiland's African penguins who celebrated freedom on their oil-free beaches. They're survivors of the largest-ever evacuation of coastal birds.

A thousand previously oiled fledglings, now cleaned and marked in pink to prove it, were released. This operation has cost more than half a million pounds.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We're doing extremely well at the moment. We've lost far less than 5 percent so far. And I think this is going to be hugely successful due to a lot of people, and I hope to be able to come back here before Christmas and see 20,000 penguins here again.

MARSHALL: Fifty-five thousand penguins were threatened, 40 percent of the world's population. Whilst the oil birds were taken away to be cleaned, the oil-free penguins were relocated to clean waters 500 miles up the coast. It was hoped from there they would swim home to their Cape colonies.

(on camera): Scientists are certain that most of those have either made it back here or are on the way. Three of them were electronically tagged, and two of those, dubbed Peter and Percy, have definitely made it onto the island, swimming on average 25 miles a day to get here.

(voice-over): And more birds are steadily arriving. Exhausted after their epic swim, they're staying close to shore. It seems for the African penguin there's no place like home.

Penny Marshall, ITN, Robbeneiland.

(END VIDEOTAPE) BAKHTIAR: Think fast food in Europe and you're unlikely to think tortilla. But think again. A tortilla is a round, thin flat bread which accompanies most meals in Mexico. They can be folded and filled or used to scoop up other foods. And while they're traditionally associated with Mexico, the world's number one tortilla maker has opened a factory for Europe in Britain's West Midlands. The company's ambitions are decidedly global.

Christian Mahne serves up our story.



ANNOUNCER: Hey there! Your colonel's got something new.


CHRISTIAN MAHNE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Tortilla's are going mainstream.


ANNOUNCER: Crispy salad wrapped up in a tasty tortilla!


MAHNE: Mexico's national bread getting more than a foothold in Europe, there are now over 400 Mexican restaurants in Britain alone, with another 20 opening every year. That makes Britain the tortilla capital of Europe.

DAVE JOHNSTON, MISSION FOODS: Europe is a bread market. It's not a rice market and it's not a corn market, it's a wheat flour/bread market. So it's -- we've been selling tortillas in Europe for 10 years. And 10 years ago, you wouldn't have found one in the supermarket.

MAHNE: The rise of the tortilla has been so swift that Mission Foods have built a $40 million European manufacturing base in Coventry to cater for demand; 140,000 tortilla's an hour will pass through this plant en route to restaurants and supermarkets throughout Europe. And with only a little tinkering, the technology can be modified to make chapatis, offering the chance to take a bite out of the global bread market.

ROBERTO GONZALES, GRUMA PRESIDENT (through translator): In India, they eat the chapati -- hundred millions of people. There's a consumption of 60 million tons of flour a year. We have done a market research and we have a project ready for India.

MAHNE: Moving the tortilla into the mass market has its risks. But with the backing of the big players, the days of the European tortilla take-away could be just around the corner.

Christian Mahne, CNN Financial News, London. (END VIDEOTAPE)

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: All right, now, hold on to your seats. We're off on a rollercoaster ride. Watch out for those twists, drops and loops. Woo hoo!

The earliest known devices which resembled roller coasters were actually built in Russia in the 1400s. They were ice-covered wooden sleds, if you can believe it. The first U.S. roller coaster was built in 1884 at Coney Island in New York City. Today, you can find rollercoasters in amusement parks all around the world.

This one near Tokyo, Japan claims to be the world's tallest, fastest, deepest and longest rollercoaster. It's called the Steel Dragon 2000 and it reaches speeds of 153 kilometers an hour. That's about 95 miles an hour. The entire ride lasts just 210 seconds. That's three and half minutes of thrills or chills.

BAKHTIAR: It's not Camp David, but the goal is the same. This summer saw an ongoing effort to broker a lasting peace in the Middle East. It didn't involve statesmen or world leaders, but rather a group of 13- to 15-year-olds at a special camp in Maine.

Phil Hirschkorn has the story.


PHIL HIRSCHKORN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Summer camp in Maine. The games are competitive, the campers diverse. They're teenagers from 10 different countries in the Middle East, not only here to play, but to plant a seed for peace.



HIRSCHKORN: John Wallach founded the Seeds of Peace Camp eight years ago.

WALLACH: Seeds of Peace is not some left-wing, you know, make love not war, sing a song, plant a tree, call it peace. Seeds of Peace exists in the real world. It exists among people who've been taught and grown up to dislike each other, often to hate each other, and it's finding some basis for them to coexist with each other.

HIRSCHKORN: Muslim and Jew, Arab and Israeli, Jordanian, Palestinian, Egyptian, 400 kids in two summer sessions play together, eat together and live together.

WALLACH: Living in the same bunk with each other can be one of the most difficult adjustments because you're sleeping with the enemy. And I remember in the first or second year -- this happens almost every year -- we had an Israeli who was walking outside the bunk at 2:00 in the morning. And we said, why aren't you sleeping? And he said, well, I can't fall asleep because I'm afraid that the Palestinian in my bunk is going to knife me. HIRSCHKORN: Nothing like that has ever happened.

TAMER SHABENEH, 15-YEAR-OLD PALESTINIAN: We used to know them as a gun -- soldiers and checkpoints -- know them as settlers and whatever. And now we see them.

ARIEL TAL, 15-YEAR-OLD ISRAELI: We're friends. The stereotypes break in the first few days.

HIRSCHKORN: Six days a week, campers break down barriers in coexistence sessions, a kind of political group therapy.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: That land's their land. It's their grandfather's land. It's their ancestors' lands...

HIRSCHKORN: Topic number one, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and how it affects them personally.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I don't have a problem that you will be my neighbor, but I have a problem if you will be -- if you come and take my home.

HIRSCHKORN: Arguing over national boundaries and trading territory to avert future wars.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: This doesn't mean the settlers don't want to get out and the government doesn't want to force them.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Yes. You want to be an independent country, right? Do why do you blame us?

HIRSCHKORN: When the conversation gets too heated, counselors find a way to calm everyone down.

CAMPERS: One, two, three!

(on camera): The philosophy behind Seeds of Peace is fairly simple. If you can understand that you can disagree with someone, even an enemy, and still live with them, that's what peaceful coexistence is all about.

WALLACH: Hands up if you've made one real friend.

HIRSCHKORN (voice-over): This generation from the Middle East looks to leaders like Egypt's Anwar Sadat or Israel's Yitzhak Rabin, who were both assassinated after taking bold steps to make peace. These campers are learning to take small steps together.

MAMDOUH ZAKI, 14-YEAR-OLD EGYPTIAN: I was thinking the same thing like the Egyptians: We can never be friends with the Israelis. And the proof is we didn't become friends at camp, we become friends at the playing.

SERGEI KHAZANOVICH, 15-YEAR-OLD ISRAELI: I actually -- I've heard that I will have to shoot like -- to make a war with the people that I met before, and I know that that isn't the way. The war, that isn't right.

HIRSCHKORN: Some campers have to overcome personal scars from the Arab-Israeli conflicts.

ABDUL JARWAN, 15-YEAR-OLD JORDANIAN: It entered from here and went out from this side.

HIRSCHKORN: Abdul, a Jordanian, was hit by a bullet fired by an Israeli soldier during a demonstration in Jerusalem when he was 6 years old.

JARWAN: From that time until I came to this camp, I extremely didn't like Israeli people. I just hated them.

HIRSCHKORN: Now he has Israeli friends. Though mostly privately funded, Seeds of Peace is embraced by public leaders, each country's government selecting the teams who go to the camp. A few, like Egyptian Tamer Nagy, have returned year after year to work there.

TAMER NAGY, COUNSELOR, SEEDS OF PEACE: After yelling and arguing for a week or two, you've yelled all you could, you've said everything you have to say, and then you get to the point when you can really start to learn how to listen to the other side.

HIRSCHKORN: In this Idyllic setting, where the water is called Lake Pleasant, where the kids where the same uniform and play on the same team, it's easier to pull for the same goal. The real work comes when they go home.

WALLACH: This is a movement. It isn't just a summer.

HIRSCHKORN: There are now more than 2,000 Seeds of Peace veterans, who the camp hopes will emerge among the next generation of Middle East leaders.

Phil Hirschkorn, CNN NEWSROOM, Otisfield, Maine.


BAKHTIAR: The power of communication. And what a great place to start: with the kids.

WALCOTT: That's very encouraging to see.

Well, coming up next week on NEWSROOM, we'll bring you a special series titled "Still Coming to America."

BAKHTIAR: We'll look at what's being called the largest sustained wave of immigration in U.S. history. For more than a decade, about 1 million people have been entering the country each year, forever changing its look and culture.

WALCOTT: That's right. And for some, this demographic shift is a cause for concern; for others a cause for celebration. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

CHIP GALLAGHER, SOCIOLOGIST: We are a nation of immigrants. We've always been reconstructing ourselves. And we have been refashioning ourselves, and that's our strength.

DAN STEIN, F.A.I.R.: Yes, immigration has played an important and historic role in our country's history. But has immigration been at today's level for 400 years since the founding of Jamestown? Of course not.


WALCOTT: And that's coming up next week.

BAKHTIAR: And that's a wrap for us here on NEWSROOM.

WALCOTT: Have a good weekend.




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