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NEWSROOM for May 2, 2000Aired May 2, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.
SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: From global terrorism to "Democracy in America," your Tuesday NEWSROOM is packed. Hi, I'm Shelley Walcott. Here's what's on tap.
Terrorism tops today's news.
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MICHAEL SHEEHAN, U.S. COORDINATOR FOR COUNTER-TERRORISM: I think the political pressure that was brought to bear on many of the state sponsors was significant, and the sanctions that went along with it also drove them out of the terrorism business.
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WALCOTT: Next up, our "Health Desk" examines the changing role of family in the emergency room.
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DR. STEVE SALVATORE, CNN MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: Increasingly, hospital emergency rooms are opening their doors to families and allowing them to observe the resuscitation of a loved one in progress.
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WALCOTT: From health care to hopes and dreams in "Worldview" where we meet an athlete who's swimming against the odds.
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PABLO CIMADAVELA, PARAPLEGIC SWIMMER (through translator): I can say I'm the first Galician with a world record and world champion. This medal was very important to me because of what it symbolizes.
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WALCOTT: Our program winds down in the U.S.A. as we learn what it's like "Viviendo en America."
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We come from a completely different culture. And I think maybe Anglos look at us and perceive us like we are strange, you know.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
WALCOTT: In today's top story, the changing face of global terrorism. A new report from the U.S. State Department indicates terrorism is shifting from well-organized, local groups to loosely- organized international networks. And the State Department notes those networks are more likely to be religiously or ideologically motivated. The U.S. government report also finds the center of terrorism is shifting. Where once most terrorist acts were organized in the Middle East, the hub of activity now appears to be South Asia, most noticeably in Afghanistan.
With more on that report now, we turn to Andrea Koppel.
ANDREA KOPPEL, CNN STATE DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): August 1998, terrorists bomb two U.S. embassies in East Africa. Saudi exile Osama bin Laden and five others are indicted for the attacks, the most recent example, say U.S. officials, of a growing trend away from state-sponsored terrorism towards non-state networks of religiously motivated terrorists.
SHEEHAN: I think the political pressure that was brought to bear on many of the state sponsors was significant, and the sanctions that went along with it also drove them out of the terrorism business.
KOPPEL: And out of the Middle East, say U.S. officials, to South Asia. Their new epicenter: Afghanistan, where an isolated government led by the Taliban militia gives safe harbor to terrorists to train with like-minded Islamic extremists from all over the world.
DANIEL BENJAMIN, U.S. INSTITUTE FOR PEACE: If you went to camp in a terrorist training camp in Afghanistan, then there is a good bet that you're going to be part of the international group of so-called Jihadists and that you're going to have a big interest in attacking the United States.
KOPPEL: As the world's only superpower, the United States has become a prominent target for terrorists. Last December, Ahmed Ressam, a suspected terrorist from Algeria, crossed into Washington State from Canada with a trunk full of explosives. In Jordan, 13 alleged terrorists with links to bin Laden were arrested on the eve of a suspected plot to attack U.S. tourists during millennial celebrations.
SHEEHAN: They try to work, find a way to operate, move and plan and raise money and train their people in areas outside of government control. They try to slip through the cracks.
KOPPEL: Among the new challenges facing the United States: trying to stay a step ahead of non-state terrorist networks. That means tracking down terrorists positioned around the world in loosely knit groups or "cells," networks in which the organizational lines are blurred, making it difficult to negotiate, especially when the terrorists' strategic objective is to inflict high casualties.
(on camera): To meet this challenge, the U.S. is now working to target the finances of these terrorist networks, coordinate strategy with governments overseas, and where possible, pushing to impose sanctions against those countries who harbor terrorists.
Andrea Koppel, CNN, the State Department.
WALCOTT: In our "Health Desk" today, a new trend in some emergency rooms in the United States. If you or a family member has to visit an ER, you might find some changes taking place, especially if doctors are treating a critically ill or injured patient fighting for life. A survey shows that more than 14 percent of Americans 18 and older -- about 36 million people -- experience the death of a parent, spouse, sibling or child each year. And studies show that such a loss can disrupt someone's life for up to three years. While it can be devastating, some doctors now think there's a way to help family members during such trauma.
Dr. Steve Salvatore explains.
SALVATORE (voice-over): The emergency room can be high drama...
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, "ER")
UNIDENTIFIED ACTRESS: I'm in.
ANTHONY EDWARDS, ACTOR: Scanning post-intubation film.
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SALVATORE: ... especially when your loved one is fighting for life. In the real world, doctors and nurses work behind a curtain or in a closed room, while families wait outside to hear the news.
(on camera): But that may be changing. Increasingly, hospital emergency rooms are opening their doors to families and allowing them to view the resuscitation of a loved one in progress.
DR. RUSSELL HARRIS, EMERGENCY ROOM PHYSICIAN: We learned with children, especially during the SIDS death, that part of the grieving process was helped by family member presence.
SALVATORE: According to a recent study published in "The American Journal of Nursing," the practice is beneficial. Ninety- seven percent of family members studied said they felt they had a right to be present during this kind of patient care, and 100 percent said they would do it again.
For Jeanne Dinella and her family, the decision to be with their father during his final moments was easy.
JEANNE DINELLA: It was tremendous to be with him even at his last breath. And we were with him and we actually saw his body, although lifeless, but going to another place.
SALVATORE: But the practice is controversial. Dr. Andrew Sama is the director of emergency medicine at New York's North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System. He fears not all families will respond positively.
DR. ANDREW SAMA, NORTH SHORE-LONG ISLAND JEWISH HEALTH SYSTEM: It can be something as simple as fainting and being unable to, you know, deal with the visual stimulus of having a very significant event occur on their loved one, to people becoming disoriented and combative during a circumstance of that nature.
SALVATORE: But if it's done properly, doctors say adverse family reactions can be avoided.
HARRIS: We will designate one provider, one physician, typically, to be with that family member.
SALVATORE: Jeanne Dinella wouldn't have it any other way.
DINELLA: And it wasn't gross or we weren't scared by it. It was almost like that's how it's supposed to be.
Dr. Steve Salvatore, CNN, New York.
ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops, and neither does the news.
WALCOTT: We have more on health and fitness in "Worldview." Our reports today take us to Asia and to Europe. We'll meet a challenged young swimmer from Spain. And we'll also check out China, a country some people will do anything to leave. You'll learn about their struggles and what happens when they're caught.
ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: The People's Republic of China is the third largest country in the world after Russia and Canada. This vast nation shares a border with 14 other countries, including India, Vietnam and Afghanistan. Although China accounts for almost one- fourteenth of the earth's total land area, overcrowding is still a major problem. China has the largest population of any country in the world.
In an effort to control the country's growth, the communist government made it illegal for families to have more than one child. This policy, combined with economic hard times and China's record of human rights abuses, have made many citizens desperate to leave.
Rebecca MacKinnon explains.
(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) REBECCA MACKINNON, CNN BEIJING BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): Seattle, January 11, 15 Chinese men found in a shipping container from Hong Kong; 12 barely managed to stumble out. The bodies of three others were found buried in the debris of a 16-day journey. The organizers of that trip are known in China as "snakeheads."
JEAN CHRISTIANSEN, IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICES: They're telling people that all they have to do is sign up with them, that they will have a very easy trip to America, and that's a lie.
MACKINNON: These men paid $60,000 each for the illegal passage to what they thought would be the promised land. Those who couldn't pay the money up front were expected to work it off in sweatshops. All of them came from the same part of China.
(on camera): More than 100,000 Chinese are thought to leave the country illegally every year. Experts believe more than 80 percent of those people come from just a handful of counties here in Fujian Province.
(voice-over): Changle County is famous for its export of people. Nearly everyone we spoke to said they have relatives overseas. The owners of this new multistory house said they built it with cash from relatives working in Japan. This young woman says she lives off money sent by her parents and sister who do menial work in New York.
CHRISTIANSEN: The problem will persist because there is a pull factor. The pull factor is what they see coming back from the United States.
MACKINNON: To stop the thriving trade in human cargo, U.S. immigration authorities have started coordinating directly with the Fujian provincial government. Armed Chinese Coast Guard vessels patrol the coastline inspecting ships for signs hidden passengers. More than 2,000 were caught last year. Most who get caught overseas are repatriated to China, but not all, and that, Chinese authorities complain, undermines their efforts.
SHI QIHUAN, CHINESE COAST GUARD (through translator): We'd like to see the U.S. return all illegal immigrants when they catch them. Some of them make up all kinds of lies and apply for political asylum or religious asylum or say they're running from the one-child policy. Some of them are allowed to stay. This only encourages illegal emigration.
REP. BILL GOODLING (R), PENNSYLVANIA: How can we, out of one side of our mouth, say that their human rights policy is deplorable and out the other side of our mouth say we're either going to incarcerate these people forever or we're going to send them back to a deplorable condition?
MACKINNON: Such sentiments in the United States brought freedom to these men four years after they were stranded near New York City in a ship called the Golden Venture. Many claimed they'd be forcibly sterilized if they returned to China. About 100 were deported. But in 1997, president Clinton, under pressure from Congress and Christian groups, granted humanitarian parole to all Golden Venture passengers remaining in federal prisons. They were embraced by local communities. Many are still awaiting decisions on their cases. The U.S. government insists these men are the exception, not the rule.
CHRISTIANSEN: In 1998, 13 percent of the Chinese that applied for political asylum were granted political asylum. We repatriate people on a daily basis.
MACKINNON: But every year, thousands more don't get caught at all, and their friends and relatives back in Changle are frank about what they think motivated them to stow away in ships or cargo containers: the fact that the average income here is only $50 a month.
"The government doesn't allow it," says this man, "but a lot of people here still want to go abroad to make money."
Rebecca MacKinnon, CNN, Changle, China.
RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Now on to Spain, a constitutional monarchy in southwestern Europe. It's bordered by the Bay of Biscay, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Spain was initially settled by Iberians, Basques and Celts, and was ruled by Carthage and Rome. Spain obtained a colonial empire with the discovery of America by Columbus, the conquest of Mexico by Cortes, and Peru by Pizarro. But Spain eventually lost its American colonies in the early century.
Our next story takes us to Galicia, Spain where one man isn't letting anything stand in the way of his Olympic dreams.
Tomas Alonso introduces us to one man who redefines courage.
TOMAS ALONSO, TV GALICIA REPORTER (voice-over): Nobody could guess that the swimmer in this shot is paraplegic, but he is. Pablo Cimadavela is 20 years old and has been confined to a wheelchair ever since an ill-fated day he was run down by a car outside his front door. Now he can be proud of the fact that he is the first Galician sportsman to have won a gold metal at the world championships.
P. CIMADAVELA (through translator): I can say I'm the first Galician with a world record and world champion. This medal is very important to me because of what it symbolizes. I hope more Galicians follow in my footsteps, but I am the first. In Sydney, I will try to be the first Olympic champion.
ALONSO: In spite of what happened, his family still lives in the same house in front of which Pablo had the accident. For several years, his father has been fighting for the social integration of his son and of the other disabled people and continues to ask for the removal of architectural and mental barriers.
EMILIO CIMADAVELA, PABLO'S FATHER (through translator): It seems as if being disabled means you aren't a first-class citizen. And this is what Pablo is fighting against every day by means of sport in order to demonstrate that he isn't a second-class citizen. And this is what really satisfies him every time he wins an event or a medal.
ALONSO: His mother has been able to instill in Pablo a longing to succeed which allows him to get on with his life without thinking about the past. She's primarily responsible for his sporting achievements.
TERESA ALVAREZ, PABLO'S MOTHER: He sets his own goals and his own time needs. This year, he got his driver license, enrolled in the School of Arts in Santiago, which was something very important to him. Then there are his rewards from the world championships. He has no limits when it comes to sport. He's going to set the limits in Sydney.
ALONSO: A leg injury prevented him from being able to attend Atlanta Paralympics, and this is why Sydney is almost an obsession for him. He lovingly looks after his trophies -- more than 40 of them -- and also his most treasured medals -- a gold from the world championship for the freestyle 50-meter relay, and a silver for the 400-meter freestyle.
His latest hobby is basketball in which he's also very competitive. It's a sport which lets him forget about the pool when he is in training. In the year 2000, he will see his penultimate dream fulfilled.
This is Tomas Alonso from TVG for CNN "WORLD REPORT."
WALCOTT: This week, we're looking at key issues surrounding the booming Hispanic or Latino population in the United States. Traditionally, that impact has been most obvious in places like California, Texas or Florida.
But as Joel Hochmuth reports, Hispanic-Americans are making inroads in places you might not expect.
JOEL HOCHMUTH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): At first glance, you might think you were south of the U.S.-Mexico border, but this highly-successful food-distribution service is based just south of Atlanta. It's run by the Lazo family, originally from central Mexico. They set up shop here in 1996.
MARIO LAZO JR., B.I.P. INCORPORATED: This is the place to be. That's why we're here.
HOCHMUTH: The Lazos are part of metro Atlanta's booming Hispanic population that's nearly tripled to about 250,000 in the past decade. Historically, the city has not been a major draw for Hispanic immigrants.
(on camera): What did you know about Atlanta before you came here? Had you ever heard of it before?
M. LAZO JR.: No. I just knew that Georgia was the pretty strongest state in the peaches -- in the peach industry.
(voice-over): The thousands of Hispanic immigrants arriving each year are quickly learning there is far more than peaches here. The biggest draw is construction. The area's housing boom has created a seemingly insatiable need for new labor.
PAM SESSIONS, HOME BUILDER: I can't imagine how it would have taken place unless other people came from somewhere. I mean, they definitely have filled a need.
HOCHMUTH: Jobs like these can pay $12 an hour or more, practically a gold mine for these workers. Most send much of what they make to families back in Mexico.
JAVIER RODRIGUEZ, CONSTRUCTION WORKER (through translator): In Mexico, we always need more money to buy things. Now that I work here, they have enough food and clothes. Thank God I've been lucky here.
JAIME CANCHOLA, CONSTRUCTION WORKER (through translator): I came to the U.S.A. because of Mexico's bad economic situation. We came here to look for a job because we can find very good jobs.
MANUEL CASTILLO, CONSTRUCTION WORKER (through translator): What I make here in one day it would take me 15 days in Mexico.
HOCHMUTH: While home builders have welcomed Mexican immigrants with open arms, that's not necessarily the story elsewhere. Pilar Verdes covers Atlanta's Hispanic community for the city's oldest Spanish-language paper.
PILAR VERDES, JOURNALIST: I don't think Atlanta -- it's ready or has open arms for immigrants. They're not used to immigrants. It's a new experience for them here in the South. It's not like L.A.
HOCHMUTH: Throughout Atlanta, there have been complaints about groups of workers waiting around for offers of day labor. There have also been high-profile roundups of undocumented workers by the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Still, overall, the growth of the Hispanic community here has come without any major incidents.
CHARLES GALLAGHER, SOCIOLOGIST, GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY: People can be generous in their racial attitudes when work is available to everyone. What's going to happen when there's an economic contraction and there's a Latino population that now calls Atlanta their home that's fighting for jobs with other groups? That hasn't happened yet.
HOCHMUTH: Currently, only about 8 percent of metro Atlanta's population is Hispanic, but that figure is expected to grow, especially if the area's economy stays strong. Some long-time residents are not exactly thrilled. MICHAEL COMER, GEORGIANS FOR RESPONSIBLE IMMIGRATION POLICY: We're going to have more destruction of farmland and timber, we're going to have more polluted water facilities in our area, we're going to have more air pollution, and we're going to have -- we're not going to be able to build schools fast enough to train all of these people. So it's going to, frankly, be a mess.
VERDES: It's like a scapegoat. Everything that goes wrong in this country is because of the arrival of immigrants from the south, meaning Mexico, Guatemala, down the border. You don't hear anybody complaining about Canadians, do you?
HOCHMUTH (on camera): What's happening in Atlanta raises an important discussion nationally. At the heart of the debate is immigration policy and just how many new residents the United States can handle. The outcome may well determine what this city and the country look like into the new millennium.
(voice-over): Already in Atlanta, as in many major U.S. cities, there are parts of town where it seems knowing Spanish is more helpful than knowing English. One big reason, the largest single source of immigrants to the city and the country is Mexico.
Overall, the federal government estimates about a million new immigrants enter the U.S. from all countries combined each year, both legally and illegally. That's comparable to the great wave of immigration following the turn of the century.
COMER: Cannot assimilate a million people a year. The numbers make it impossible. It's called Balkanization and it is a factionalization or a separation of the United States. Again, it happened in the Balkan states, which is where Yugoslavia resides, and it's happening here.
GALLAGHER: But the reality is that the United States can accommodate, it can assimilate all these groups, because it's flexible. You know, it kind of bends and doesn't break, and that's been why we haven't kind of broken into factionalized, mini-countries. We're a country of immigrants, for the most part, and every group gets assimilated.
HOCHMUTH: Since so many current immigrants are Hispanic, the motives of those opposed to immigration policy are often questioned.
COMER: People ask me that all the time: Do you have something against Hispanics? Absolutely not. If we had a million blue-eyed, blonde-haired, good-looking Swedish women coming into the country every year, if they were taking jobs away from Americans, and if they were causing a burden on the taxpayers to take up the social cost of the programs that they tend to use more than Americans, I'd have a problem with that group as well.
VERDES: Racism, that's what it is. I don't another word that defines it better.
HOCHMUTH: Of course, such cries of racism do little to discourage immigrants from coming to the United States.
Mario Lazo is the father of the family we met earlier.
MARIO LAZO SR., B.I.P. INCORPORATED (through translator): It is a place of opportunities and allows formation of the family. Your children can grow in a positive, working environment, and with the opportunity of having a great future for tomorrow.
HOCHMUTH: But as Hispanics and other immigrant groups continue to arrive in near-record numbers, the question remains: Can we all get along?
COMER: That switching of cultures, that switching of the leading -- the ruling majority caused problems in Yugoslavia, and I think people are blind to the fact that it could cause problems in Georgia.
VERDES: I think every new experience makes us grow as human beings and also as a society. So I think it will be very positive. It's very positive right now. We're learning to live together, to share, and that's excellent as human beings.
WALCOTT: Today's "Democracy in America" segment takes us to the U.S. state of Nebraska where we'll meet one civic-minded student who is going to the polls as a candidate, running against the very person who taught her the ins and outs of the political process.
CNN Student Bureau's Kailyn Reid (ph) has the story.
KAILYN REID, CNN STUDENT BUREAU (voice-over): In rural York, Nebraska, a small town of 8,000, Mayor Greg Adams is campaigning for a second term. Adams, also a government teacher at York High School, challenged his students to get politically involved -- a challenge one senior accepted. Meet Keshara Poland, candidate for mayor, an 18- year-old who first had to take her case to the Nebraska state capital to ensure she was eligible to run.
KESHARA POLAND, AGE 18, MAYORAL CANDIDATE: Last semester when I was in political science, my teacher, who is the current mayor, was talking about the finer details about city government, and he put the idea into my head that I should get out there and run against him. He was encouraging all of us to get involved. And the more I thought about it, the more I wanted to run.
MAYOR GREG ADAMS, YORK, NEBRASKA: Actually, I did not encourage a student to run against me. What I did was to encourage all my students to participate in the political system. I think that was Keshara's decision to run against me.
I take my teaching first. It has to be. But I also have a major obligation as being mayor.
POLAND: York needs a change, and I'm that change. REID: Regardless of the outcome, both teacher and student are striving to make York a better place.
Kailyn Reid, CNN Student Bureau, York, Nebraska.
WALCOTT: Finally, we want to mention a special event taking place on the Worldwide Web. Tomorrow, CNN.com presents "Full Circle: Kent State 30 years later." The webcast will reflect on the Kent State shootings and student activism today. You can watch and even participate by heading to the address on your screen.
Then on Thursday, May 4, NEWSROOM will mark the official 30th anniversary of Kent State. We'll take a look at student activism past and present.
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UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So times have changed, issues have changed. There's not a monolithic, huge issue like Vietnam today, but, still, students are active about a broad range of issues.
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WALCOTT: And that wraps up today's show. From all of us here at NEWSROOM, have a great day.
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