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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for March 16, 2000

Aired March 16, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET


ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: NEWSROOM takes a turn into Thursday. Glad you could come along. I'm Tom Haynes.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: And I'm Rudi Bakhtiar. Here's what's ahead.

HAYNES: In today's top story, Middle East oil supplies are down and gas prices in the United States are up. We'll look at growing pressure to expand oil drilling in the U.S.


MARK RUBIN, AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE: It's been estimated, based upon United States Geological Service estimates, that we could replace the same amount of oil that we are currently importing from Saudi Arabia for the next 30 years.


BAKHTIAR: Next, in our "Science Desk," it's still sweater weather in some parts of the world. But is it really that cold outside? The answer may be blowing in the wind.


PATTY DAVIS, CNN CORRESPONDENT: The wind chill factor, a combination of temperature and wind speed, tells you how cold it really feels.


HAYNES: Next stop Silicon Valley, where the medium is often more compelling than the message. Today's "Worldview" examines the latest waves in communication.


GREG LEFEVRE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Ten years out, the Internet becomes the infinite connection, allowing you to connect and work anywhere.


BAKHTIAR: Then, in "Chronicle," moving to a new beat. We'll look at a program keeping kids in step with their classes.


GINA LONDON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Alvin Ailey is moving its dance steps from the stage to the schools with a new program that's designed to help teach students reading, writing, even history and math, through choreography.


BAKHTIAR: If you're a motorist, today's news might drive you crazy. We're speaking, of course, about the rising cost of gasoline. Around the world, people are feeling the effect of a reduction in the supply of oil, which is causing prices at the pump to skyrocket.

In some parts of the United States, gas prices are above $2 a gallon. That's more than Americans are used to paying. In other countries, gas prices are even higher. In France, for example, motorists pay more than $3 a gallon. The same goes for Italy, Belgium and Germany. In Britain and the Netherlands, prices are even higher: more than $4 a gallon.

So why is gas becoming so expensive? Many point to OPEC. That's an abbreviation for the Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries. The United States and other countries depend on OPEC for much of their oil supply. Oil is the main ingredient needed to produce gas.

Since OPEC members recently decided to scale back the amount of oil they export, there is less gas to go around, making filling-up at the pump more expensive. In most cases, higher prices would mean less demand. That's not the case with gasoline, which, for most people, is a necessity.

Take truck drivers, for example. They have to buy gas, no matter what the price. More now in two reports beginning with Kathleen Koch.


KATHLEEN KOCH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It's trucker protest take two -- anger on 18 wheels, as many as 500 drivers this time heading for Washington to demand the government do something about high fuel prices. The federal government says put on the brakes. At a meeting March 27th, oil-producing nations are expected to boost production. Since February, Energy Secretary Bill Richardson has been globe-trotting, trying to persuade countries to accept the idea of adequate supplies at reasonable prices.

BILL RICHARDSON, U.S. SECRETARY OF ENERGY: Here's my hope -- and I can't offer any assurances -- that if OPEC meets and they decide to increase production at a sizable level, late spring/early summer, you will see a gradual decrease in gasoline and diesel prices.

KOCH: As proof, Richardson told Congress a barometer of future oil prices is already headed down.

Gas prices are so high, because oil producers organized and cut production, depleting supply just as strong economies sent demand up. One energy analyst says OPEC won't risk quashing the very economic boom that's feeding it.

DANIEL YERGIN, CAMBRIDGE ENERGY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES: Today, these countries, key producers, recognize that they're very tied in with us economically. Mexico, because of free trade and so forth, really depends very much on what happens to the United States.

KOCH: Democrats and Republicans are trying to gain political mileage from the gas price issue.

REP. TOM DELAY (R-TX), MAJORITY WHIP: Americans from coast to coast are paying escalating prices for gasoline and something must be done.

KOCH: The latest Republican proposal: withholding U.S. aid or arms sales from countries that won't increase oil production. So far, no trimming the federal gas tax or tapping the petroleum reserve.

Even if countries opt not to hike oil production, some predict supply may creep up regardless.

DOUGLAS BOHI, OIL INDUSTRY ANALYST: Remember, there's a long history of OPEC countries cheating on their production quotas, producing more than they say they do.

KOCH (on camera): And some believe it is that, OPEC retreating to its old habits of haggling and infighting, that could bring the swiftest end to high pump prices.

Kathleen Koch for CNN, Washington.



BRIAN CABELL, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Johnny Hensley (ph) has been driving a rough road the last several months. Diesel fuel has risen from $1 a gallon to $1.60 and more.

JOHNNY HENSLEY, INDEPENDENT TRUCKER: Up in Connecticut it was over $2 -- $2.02, $2.05 in Connecticut, a gallon.

CABELL: Hensley drives chicken and produce 2,500 miles a week. He works for himself and now pays $200 more a week for fuel than he used to. That's money straight out of his pocket.

HENSLEY: Everybody in my family -- I mean, so many people is depending on that one truck right there. It's floating everybody. If the truck don't make it, it's a major crisis. I mean, it's bad.

Maybe we'll get something by tomorrow. CABELL: He's on the road four or five days a week, but frequently phones his wife, Dee, at their home outside Burlington, North Carolina.


CABELL: She just lost her job, so she and her son, Roger, depend on Johnny. So do her parents, who live out back. So do his daughter, Mandy, and his granddaughter, Destiny.


CABELL: The fuel price increase has cut sharply into the family's savings. Meals are nothing special these days. Entertainment is just about nonexistent. But for Johnny Hensley, who's done nothing but drive a truck for the last two decades, there aren't many options. He'll absorb the price increase for now and hope that eventually he can raise his rates. Price increases will be passed on to the consumers.

HENSLEY: Chicken's going up. Everything's going up. Everything's going up. Got to. If the fuel don't come down, everything else is going to go up.

CABELL: Everything else but his income. It's something that he and his wife and his entire family in central North Carolina have learned to live with.

Brian Cabell, CNN, outside Burlington, North Carolina.


HAYNES: So, that's the scenario. Middle East oil supplies go down, gas prices go up, along with the pressure to increase the supply. In the United States, that means pressure to reach deeper into domestic oil supplies. But doing that in places like the Alaskan oil reserve means a battle between those who want cheaper gas and those who want to preserve nature.

Rusty Dornin looks at the latest skirmish.


RUSTY DORNIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): When the numbers start going up here, you can bet the pressure gauge rises here: pressure to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge, known as ANWR, has been off limits since 1980 to any oil exploration without congressional approval.

Alaska Senator Frank Murkowski says it's time for Congress to reconsider.

SEN. FRANK MURKOWSKI (R), ALASKA: ANWR becomes one of the reasonable alternatives, and as a consequence, we think it's advisable to try and pursue it. DORNIN: Environmentalists call it the biological heart of Alaska and compare it to the Serengeti plains of Africa for the diversity of its wildlife. They say put an oil field here, and you will destroy it forever.

BRUCE HAMILTON, SIERRA CLUB: So we are going to sacrifice something that we should be passing onto our grandchildren as a national heritage in order to have a quick fix of oil for six months, and if you really want to have some additional oil, there are better ways to do it through conservation.

DORNIN: Alaska ships 10 percent of its oil to Asia, but petroleum producers say the percentage is too small to affect U.S. supplies or prices.

(on camera): When gas prices soar, the rallying cry by the oil industry is open the refuge and drill, and the U.S. would no longer be over a barrel.

MARK RUBIN, AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE: It's been estimated, based upon United States Geological Service estimates, that we could replace the same amount of oil that we're currently importing from Saudi Arabia for the next 30 years from ANWR production.

DORNIN: As the oil industry dreams of vast pools of crude beneath the Arctic tundra, environmentalists say their dream is to get President Clinton to declare it a national monument: the only surefire way, they say, to keep the refuge wild and free.

Rusty Dornin, CNN, San Francisco.


HAYNES: Hey, this time of year, the weather forecast can vary, from sun to rain and even snow. Check it out, plenty of it. Well, today, we checkout the wind chill factor, a measure of how quickly your body loses heat.

When the wind blows across the skin, it removes the insulating layers of warm molecules and replaces them with colder molecules. Now, the faster the wind blows, the greater the heat loss and the colder we feel. The amount of cooling a person feels because of the combination of wind and temperatures is called wind chill.

Now, while spring is on the way, for some places there's plenty of cold weather left. But those freezing wind chill temperatures might not be as cold as you think they are.

Patty Davis explains.


PATTY DAVIS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Midwesterners have come to expect it this time of year:

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I try to be prepared. DAVIS: The snow, the cold and the wind.


TOM SKILLING, WGN METEOROLOGIST: Wind chills go down in that area upwards of 30 to 40 below zero.

UNIDENTIFIED METEOROLOGIST: Wind chill ratings and temperatures dangerously low.


DAVIS: The wind chill factor, a combination of temperature and wind speed, tells you how cold it really feels.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: If you've got the wind and everything, it does make a big difference out here.

DAVIS: But professor Maurice Bluestein says the wind chill index is just plain wrong.

PROF. MAURICE BLUESTEIN, INDIANA UNIV./PURDUE UNIV.: With the current wind chill factor, the temperatures that they're giving you are too low. It's not as cold.

DAVIS: Bluestein's research shows the real wind chill is actually 8 to 15 degrees warmer, and the exaggeration, he says, poses dangers.

BLUESTEIN: If you go out when the wind chill is reported at 25 below zero, for example, when the air temperature may just be over freezing, maybe 35 degrees, you may feel comfortable enough to think that when the air temperature really gets to minus 25, that you can go out safely as well.

DAVIS: But a real 25 below could put you at risk for frostbite.

(on camera): The current windchill formula, developed in Antarctica in the 1940s, was based on how long it took a container of water to freeze. Bluestein says that's the problem: Human skin freezes at a different rate.

(voice-over): Even meteorologists, sometimes accused of hyping cold waves, support a change.

SKILLING: If there are some factors we can bring into play that are not currently considered, and you give me a better number to more accurately represent it, by all means I'm in favor of it, and I'm sure all my colleagues are.

DAVIS: A wind chill fix could take as long as three years. But whether it's really 15 below or just 5 below, veterans of Chicago's brutal winters say it makes little difference.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The numbers probably wouldn't frighten me that much. You just keep putting stuff on. You know, you get the coffee, get the hot chocolate, whatever it takes to stay warm.

DAVIS: Patty Davis, CNN, Chicago.


ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops and neither does the news.

BAKHTIAR: In "Worldview" today, we take a trip into the future. We'll examine the technological revolution -- what's here and what's coming around the world.

HAYNES: The old millennium brought us the printing press, the telephone, radio and television, inventions that had and still have a huge impact on communication around the world. The Internet made new inroads, at 400 million Web sites strong and still growing. So what comes next? Hang on tight as we fast forward into the future.

Greg Lefevre takes us on an incredible journey. Here now, some predictions and possibilities.


GREG LEFEVRE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): We're in for the communications ride of our lives. The coming year sees cell phones small enough to hide in your pocket -- really -- and to take anywhere in the world. The promise of video phones is coming true, tiny hand sized computers that know your favorite subjects, and Internet everywhere.

Although Albert Brooks lampooned video phones in his movie "Mother," technologists believe 2000 will be the year of video messaging. See whom you're talking to: AOL's new software pushes video mail. A plethora of video cameras jack into your PC.

(on camera): The technology is there to put you on camera all the time.

(voice-over): Some folks live their lives on camera already. Web cameras already check the surf, check the traffic. It may be just five years before we can chat on giant screens like "Star Trek"'s Captain Kirk.


UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR: I shall look forward to that.


LEFEVRE: Want words only? Breakthroughs in palm devices make it easy to stay in touch, units you never plug in updated by radio waves. In the next five years, cell phones will sense their locations and feed you information about where you are.

PAUL SAFFO, DIRECTOR, INSTITUTE FOR THE FUTURE: You're walking down Center Street in San Francisco, your phone chirps at you, a little message comes up on the screen and it's an electronic coupon from a Chinese restaurant a block and a half away in your direction of travel, and it says if you get here in the next 10 minutes, we'll give you half off of dinner.

LEFEVRE: The other coming breakthroughs make high quality video phones possible, even easy: broadband wireless, rooftop boxes to take in enormous gobs of video data, games and conversations on one signal. The big winners here, rural areas or countries with little cable or telephone service.

GREG RALEIGH, DIR. OF WIRELESS ENGINEERING, CISCO SYSTEMS: Wireless offers a way, especially this type of wireless solution, for them to immediately jump into the new world in terms of the information economy very quickly, in a matter of months.

LEFEVRE: Can't speak the language? In another year or two it won't matter.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You're under arrest.

LEFEVRE: Oakland Police Officer Tam Dinh tests a new automatic translator. It knows Spanish, Cantonese, Vietnamese.


LEFEVRE: The translator comes in handy in medical emergencies, too.

TAM DINH, OAKLAND POLICE DEPARTMENT: Where people are hurt, people are injured it's always important to try to get as much information as possible.

LEFEVRE: 2000 will be the year of e-mail everywhere, no computer necessary. These devices from V-Tech and Sidco plug into any phone line, one button that says "get e-mail," easy. Or press this gizmo from Sharp up to any telephone.

CONSTANCE HALE, AUTHOR, "SIN AND SYNTAX": I believe that e-mail has been an incredible boon to communication. People are writing today where they would have been telephoning yesterday. So people are engaging more with words than they have for the last, probably, generation.

LEFEVRE: Constance Hale says communication is getting better because people are writing more and reading more, e-books downloading into anything, your palm top, your rocket book.

HALE: If e-books take off and it means that people read more, great because the only thing that's really going to make us better writers is to read more and to write more.

LEFEVRE: In another five years we won't even worry about wires at all. Right now, the norm is every computer has a wire out the back.

SAFFO: What the revolution is about in the short-term is cutting that tether.

LEFEVRE: Ten years out, the Internet becomes the infinite connection, allowing you to connect and work anywhere. With the cards developed by Sun Microsystems, you plug in anywhere. The network knows it's you and puts up your work.

MCNEALY: So it's really: create once, view anywhere, access anywhere.

DUANE NORTHCUTT, CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST, INFORMATION APPLIANCES GROUP: Or you're going to have the information bankers, people who are willing to take on your information, store it there and keep it safe and guarantee to you it's going to be there when you need it.

LEFEVRE (on camera): Twenty years from now we won't think so much about connecting to the Internet. If present research pans out, it will be with us always. Think about a topic, brain waves make the request and the Internet, perhaps then called the Omninet, responds: brain mail.

(voice-over): The information stream gets faster, faster, more and more high-speed tonnage pouring into your brain. But is it all doing any good?

HALTON ADLER MANN, WRITER: You know, we have all this information but what are we doing with it and who is it reaching?

LEFEVRE: Writer Halton Mann says communication's great promise of the 20th century, peace, is yet unkempt.

MANN: Can we put human communication to work for humanity? And even if we can do it, can we reach the recesses of the human psyche that will prevent things like Rwanda?

WALTER J. FREEMAN, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-BERKELEY: Communication is not a matter of sending so many bits across so many linkages out to satellites and back again, but rather it's the exchange of meaning.

LEFEVRE: Meaning that can produce a better understanding of one another. In the future we and the Worldwide Web will chat, decide, ponder all at the same time. The next generation will be better at that. A recent study showed kids who play lots of video games get very good at receiving and digesting information from multiple sources, albeit in some cases multiple bandwidths.

(on camera): The Internet of the future will be less about people talking to each other and more about machines talking to each other. Example: The refrigerator reads the bar code on the milk carton, determines when it's time to replenish, adds the milk to the Internet shopping list...

(voice-over): ... and, voila, new milk on the doorstep. Or the Web can wake you early for work.

BOB PARKS, "WIRED" MAGAZINE: Bob's future begins at about 6:45 a.m. and Bob is kind of mad because he usually gets up at 7:15 and likes to cut it close with his morning commute. But I looked at my radio and it says that there's a traffic jam on 101 South and I'm going to need an extra half an hour.

MCNEALY: Our belief is that everything with a digital or electrical heartbeat will be connected to the Internet. Your light bulb will be connected back to General Electric and GE will have a Sun server that will fax out a little map of where the light bulb is that's going to burn out in the next 20 minutes and GE will UPS out a new bulb that fits exactly into the right socket.

LEFEVRE: Predicting the future can be so much fun because we're almost never around to see that it usually doesn't come out that way.

FREEMAN: When you look at the predictions that people were making about the nature of digital computers about 1950, saying that, well, you know, half a dozen would satisfy all our needs for the next century, that's the nature of technical or technological prediction that it almost always falls short of the mark.

LEFEVRE: Who could have predicted the Internet boom?

FREEMAN: And it's the unexpected which we have to expect.

LEFEVRE: We already use chips programmed to design better chips.

(on camera): In coming decades, the Internet will be able to diagnose its own problems and repair itself, growing and maturing on its own, perhaps even deciding who gets what information and who does not. Can you say, "open the door, Hal"?

Greg Lefevre, CNN, in Silicon Valley.


BAKHTIAR: A "Worldview" footnote: Yesterday, a very important shipment left San Francisco, California headed for Pyong Yang, North Korea. It's called Operation Apple Seed and it's carrying 10,000 apple trees to help establish an apple tree orchard. The humanitarian mission is designed to help the hunger-stricken people of North Korea. Mercy Corps International says this isn't a quick fix, it's a long- term solution.

HAYNES: In "Chronicle" today, the art of taking pictures. It was once said "the virtue of a camera is not the power it has to transform the photographer into an artist, but the impulse it gives him to keep on looking." Well, apparently that's true in the case of Arnold Newman, a photographer who's kept looking for more than six decades. He's captured the images of presidents, artists and entertainers -- from Richard Nixon to Marilyn Monroe. And now the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. is featuring an exhibit of his work.

Bruce Morton takes us there.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) BRUCE MORTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Arnold Newman started taking pictures, 49 cents each, during the Great Depression. But soon, as this book and his show at the Corcoran demonstrate, he was photographing famous folk: the Palestinian Liberation Organization's Yasser Arafat; Israel's Yitzhak Rabin; ex-President Harry Truman, he says, talked for 30 minutes about why he decided to atom bomb Japan to end World War II; Nazi industrialist Alfred Krupp, tried as a war criminal, then returned to power. Newman saw Krupp as the devil.

ARNOLD NEWMAN, PHOTOGRAPHER: If I'm going to be remembered for one picture, that's it because, to me, that symbolizes our efforts in the war, what happened during the war, the Holocaust, and our stupidity after the war.

MORTON: Artist and New Mexico landmark Georgia O'Keefe.

NEWMAN: I said, you don't suffer fools gladly, do you Ms. O'Keefe? You keep them at arm's length, and she broke out laughing. And that point on we had a lot of fun.

MORTON: A young Senator John Kennedy. Years later, President Kennedy asked Newman about the picture. They dropped you from the article, Newman had to explain. They thought you were least likely to succeed.

Over the years, Newman developed a technique: show the subject in his context -- sculptor Henry Moore with a sculpture, choreographer Jerome Robbins in a rehearsal hall, author Truman Capote with his toys, composer Igor Stravinsky with -- well, you get the idea.

NEWMAN: I wanted to make the people real. All you ever saw, even in magazine covers in those earlier days, the pictures all look over-retouched, all the same, the same kind of studio lighting. I wanted to say something about that person.

Marilyn Monroe, he says, kept putting off picture sessions. All he had when she died were some snapshots he'd taken at a dinner with Monroe and author Carl Sandberg. He blew one up and got this.

NEWMAN: I think she was one of the loneliest and saddest persons I ever knew, and I just saw it in that snap when she was pouring her heart out to Carl telling him all of her troubles.

MORTON: Then Vice President Richard Nixon, ex-Beatle George Harrison, Eleanor Roosevelt, jazz pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith. Newman is 83 and having a fine, fine time.

NEWMAN: Well, it's just fun because every time you go to a different place, you've got a new world to work in.

MORTON: Bruce Morton, CNN, Washington.


BAKHTIAR: Education encompasses a lot of things. Your day is filled with classes -- algebra, English, chemistry. Some of you may even have a dance class next period. Dance is an art that's been studied and practiced for centuries. Recently, we introduced you to a style of dance called "stepping." Today we bring you a different type -- different, not because of how it's done but how it's used.

Gina London explains.


GINA LONDON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The Alvin Ailey American Dance Company is world renowned for its commitment to preserving black culture through modern dance. In more than 40 years, the troupe has performed in 48 states and 68 countries.

(on camera): But now Alvin Ailey is moving its dance steps from the stage to the school with a new program that's designed to help teach students reading, writing, even history and math through choreography.

(voice-over): Students at Inman Middle School in Atlanta were the first to put this national pilot program to the test.

CHARLES GIBSON, 7TH-GRADER: I was kind of skeptical: Am I going to like it, am I not going to like it?

LONDON: But the instructors say physicalizing education can make it come alive.

GIBSON: I liked it, yes. It was, you know -- mobility, my pre- algebra teacher says, is a good way to learn.

LONDON: Like when these two ordinary teachers dance the concept of symmetry.

KATHLEEN ISAAC, ALVIN AILEY DANCE COMPANY: You have to work on shapes that are symmetrical and keep that symmetry.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It teaches you how to be disciplined when you do something, so it makes you a harder worker.

LONDON: And, of course, students are more likely to work hard if they're also enjoying themselves.

SAJI GIRVAN, 7TH-GRADER: Usually language arts class, it's a really boring class. So for once we got to come and do something fun.

LONDON: When the instructors leave, schools can keep the fun going with a curriculum guide on how to move kids to learn. The Alvin Ailey troupe has plans to launch the program in several others states and the dancers say they'll come back to Atlanta later this year to make sure these students are keeping in step.

Gina London, CNN, Atlanta.


BAKHTIAR: Well that's an interesting concept for education.

HAYNES: All we had was kickball and field hockey and things like that, yes...

BAKHTIAR: Yes, well we didn't have that.

HAYNES: ... shuttle race, pass the eraser.

All right, guys, take it easy. We'll see you back here tomorrow.





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