Penguins at a Glance
Compiled November 1998

Levels of extinction risk, in order of importance: Endangered, Vulnerable,Near Threatened, Stable

Penguin Species Latin Name Average Height/Weight Primarily Found Conservation Status & Approximate Population
Adelie Pygoscelis adeliliae 15 inches/8 1/2 pounds Antarctica Stable, 2.466 million breeding pairs, 10 million juveniles
African Spheniscus demersus 18 inches/7 1/4 pounds South Africa & Namibia Vulnerable, 179,000 individuals, currently threatened by oil spills, overfishing and habitat loss
Chinstrap Pygoscelis antarctica 17 inches/9 pounds Sub-Antarctic Stable, 7.5 million breeding pairs
Emperor Aptenodytes forsteri 40 1/2 inches/75 pounds Antarctica Stable, 218,000 pairs (1992-1994 estimate)
Erect-Crested Eudyptes sclateri 20 inches/10 pounds Antipodes, so. of New Zealand Endangered, 165,000 breeding pairs, primary threats are introduced rats taking eggs, chicks and marine disturbances
Galapagos Spheniscus mendiculus 12 inches/5 pounds Galapagos Islands Endangered, 3,600-6,000 individuals, warm currents caused by El Niņo displace or kill the fish this penguin eats
Gentoo Pygoscelis papua 20 inches/13 pounds Sub-Antarctic Stable, 317,000 breeding pairs
Fiordland Eudyptes pachyrhynchus 16 inches/7 3/4 pounds New Zealand Vulnerable, 2,000-3,000 breeding pairs, primary threat is the Weka, an introduced flightless bird species, also vulnerable
Humboldt Spheniscus humboldti 16 inches/9 pounds W. Coast of Chile, Peru Vulnerable, 5,500 individuals in Peru, 7,500 individuals in Chile, present threats include egg harvesting, overfishing, entanglement and habitat encroachment, El Niņo also a concern
King Aptenodytes patagonicus 30 1/2 inches/28 1/2 pounds Sub-Antarctic Islands Stable, 1.638 million breeding population
Little Blue Eudyptula minor 8 inches/2 1/4 pounds New Zealand & Australia Stable or decreasing, one sub-species is endangered, regulating human interaction seems to be helping this species recover
Macaroni Eudyptes chrysolophus 22 inches/12 pounds Sub-Antarctic Islands/circumpolar Near threatened, 9 million pairs, potential threats include competition with commercial fisheries
Magellanic Spheniscus magellanicus 17 1/2 inches/9 pounds Argentina, Chile & Falklands Some species near threatened, 1.2 million pairs, oils spills a threat
Rockhopper Eudyptes chrysocome 17 inches/6 1/2 pounds Sub-Antarctic Islands/circumpolar Vulnerable, 350,000-828,000 pairs in three sub-species
Royal Eudyptes schlegeli 23 inches/12 pounds Sub-Antarctic, Macquarie Island Vulnerable, 185,000 breeding pairs, vulnerable to oil spills
Snares Island Eudyptes robustus 18 inches/6 3/4 pounds Snares Island, so. of New Zealand Vulnerable, 23,000 breeding pairs, vulnerable to oil spills, pollution and overfishing
Yellow-Eyed Megadyptes antipodes 21 inches/11 1/2 pounds New Zealand Vulnerable, 5,100-6,200 individuals in 1993, destruction of forest breeding sites, forced to nest in the open where they can be trampled

Source: New England Aquarium, Central Wharf, Boston, MA,