Findings of Outside Events

    The Outside Team was led by FBI Special Agent Michael Barnett and assisted by JCSO Investigators Jack McFadden and Cheryl Zimmerman.  They were assigned the task of identifying any additional suspects involved in the shooting, pre-bomb activities, and outside witnesses.  There were 16 investigators assigned to this team for varying terms based on availability.  Six hundred and seventy-one (671) leads were assigned to this team, which included a portion of the interior classroom interviews.

Critical Witnesses

    Ninety-one critical witnesses were identified as having witnessed significant events such as movements and actions of Harris and Klebold.  Eighty-three of those witnesses were not injured and the remaining eight were victims.  Two of the injured were just inside the school however, they were injured from outside and therefore included in the outside summary. Critical witnesses included students, school employees and adult citizens who observed something outside the school.

Suspect Identification

    Identification of the suspects ranged from personal acquaintances to selection from photographic line-ups.  Additional identifications were made based on physical descriptions coupled with observation of known actions of the suspects.  The witness information was broken into three chronological time segments being “immediately before,” “during,” and “after” the incident. Based on witness statements, evidence, ballistic reports and the totality of the investigation, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were determined to be the only two individuals apparently involved in the shootings at Columbine High School.   


    Those victims wounded outside the school as a direct result of Harris and/or Klebold were identified as follows:

  1.     Richard Castaldo         

  2.     Sean Graves            

  3.     Lance Kirklin      

  4.     Michael Johnson         

  5.     Mark Taylor             

  6.     Anne Marie Hochhalter    

  7.     Brian Anderson      

  8.     Patricia Nielson, teacher          

The deceased were identified as follows:

  1.     Rachel Scott         

  2.     Daniel Rohrbough      

Observations of Witnesses

    Throughout the investigation there were many witnesses who had common perceptions and misperceptions of the events during the shooting. 

    The inaccuracy of some media reports influenced witness statements.

Chronological Outside Witness Summary

    The following is a chronological account of what is believed to have occurred outside of Columbine High School on April 20th, 1999, based on statements of witnesses, ballistic evidence and autopsy reports.

    April 20, 1999 was one of the first warm, sunny days of the spring.  Many students were taking advantage of the spring day by eating their lunches outside, relaxing on the grassy areas around the school building. The first series of gunshots, fired toward the west doors, struck Rachel Scott and Richard Castaldo, who were seated outside, eating their lunch on the north side of the library.  Rachel died from the gunshot wounds.  Richard was critically injured, receiving multiple gunshot wounds.

    Harris took off his trench coat and laid it on the ground near the top of the shortly after he began shooting. Klebold wore his black trench coat the entire time they remained outside.

    The gunmen then turned their attention to outside the cafeteria and started shooting down the incline toward the bottom of the stairs.  Harris rested his gun on the chain link fence at the top of the steps and fired at students below.  Daniel Rohrbough, Sean Graves, and Lance Kirklin had just stepped outside through a side door of the school cafeteria.  One of them wanted to go to the “smoker’s pit” just off campus for a cigarette and the other two friends were accompanying him.  Glancing in the direction of Klebold and Harris, the friends noticed two students with what looked like guns.  Their first thoughts were that the guns were paint ball guns and part of a Senior Prank Day.  They did not think anything was wrong.  They thought it was a joke.

    The three walked out the northwest side entrance from the cafeteria, heading up the dirt slope between the steps and the cafeteria wall toward the gunmen. Harris and Klebold started shooting before the boys got halfway up the hill.  All three were injured.

    Five students were sitting behind a few small pine trees to the west of the top of the stairs.  They stood up to run when the two suspects fired gunshots in their direction.  Students Michael Johnson and Mark Taylor were struck by these bullets.  Johnson was able to reach the outdoor athletic storage shed where he took cover with others. Taylor fell back to the ground, unable to flee with the others.

    Klebold went back down the stairs to the area outside the cafeteria and shot Rohrbough, killing him instantly. He then shot Kirklin at close range.

    Graves was able to drag himself back down to a cafeteria doorway in an attempt to get back inside.  He lost all strength and ended up half in and half out of the door, propping it open with his body.  Klebold, who had just shot Rohrbough and Kirklin, stepped over Graves, now playing dead in the doorway.  That probably saved his life.  The gunman briefly went into the cafeteria, holding his weapon in what some described as a “ready-to-fire” sweeping motion.  He did not shoot but looked around and then walked back outside and returned to the top of the steps.

Teacher Dave Sanders gets kids out of cafeteria

    While Harris and Klebold were shooting from the top of the stairs, teacher William “Dave” Sanders heard the initial commotion going on outside.  Walking into the cafeteria from the teachers’ lounge, he saw students beginning to react to the events outside the cafeteria windows.  The actions on the cafeteria videotape show students standing up, looking outside, and, based on subsequent interviews, said they were wondering and asking each other, “What’s going on?  Is this a senior prank? Are they filming a movie?” (Some of the kids knew Harris and Klebold were active in a video class). 

    Sanders and school custodians Jon Curtis and Jay Gallatine realized there was a danger.  On the videotape, the teacher and the custodians can be seen in the cafeteria directing the students to get down.  Students begin to hide under the lunch room tables and then, realizing the danger, the students exit in mass up the stairs from the cafeteria to the second level.

    By the time Klebold stepped over Graves and briefly walked into the entrance of the cafeteria with his guns, most students had evacuated.  Others were hiding under tables or had sought refuge in the school pantry, the refrigerator or kitchen area. Because Sanders had instructed the kids to hide or get out, the cafeteria appeared to be empty. 

    Klebold turned around and walked back outside, stepping over Sean Graves, and joined Harris back at the top of the stairs.  The gunmen continued shooting their guns, lighting pipe bombs and throwing them into the senior parking lot or onto the school roof, while shooting toward the ball fields where students were fleeing.  

More shots fired outside the school

    Meanwhile, Harris continued shooting down the stairs.  Anne Marie Hochhalter was shot as she stood to run toward the cafeteria from where she was seated with friends at the curb by the senior parking lot. A friend dragged her away from the gunfire to the cafeteria wall.  He left Hochhalter near the building and ran into the parking lot, hiding behind vehicles in the senior lot.  From here he heard someone yell, “This is what we always wanted to do.  This is awesome!” Hochhalter was the last one shot outside the school.

    From the onset and continuing throughout the outside shooting, both suspects were seen lighting and throwing explosive devices onto the roof, into the parking lot and toward the grassy hillside.  One suspect was seen taking four bombs from inside his coat and throwing them.  The witness also observed a gun attached to a gun strap that hung to his side.  Others saw bombs taken from a box or bag at the gunmen’s feet.

    The gunmen threw a pipe bomb in the area where Hochhalter had originally collapsed.  The bomb exploded.  Additional gunshots were fired toward the ball fields where students were fleeing.  This time, no one was injured.

It’s now 11:25 a.m.  Only four minutes have passed.

    Most of the students having lunch outside had escaped to safer areas, and there was not much else to shoot at outside the building. Harris and Klebold turned toward the west entrance and fired their weapons into the school as they walked toward the entrance.

    The west entrance has two outer and inner sets of doors with glass windows that were shattered by the bullets from the killers’ guns.

    Teacher Patricia  Nielson was on her way outside to tell the shooters to “knock it off,” thinking the weapons were toy guns and that a video production was being taped.  Nielson suffered abrasions to her shoulder, forearm and knee from the flying glass.

    Student Brian Anderson was with a friend in a hallway of the school when they heard explosions and screaming and were told by a teacher to get out.  They ran to the west doors but when they exited the interior set of doors and were in the air-lock approaching the exterior doors, Anderson saw Harris shoot through the glass doors and was injured by flying glass fragments as the door shattered. 

    Both Nielson and Anderson had the opportunity to flee, despite their injuries, when Harris and Klebold were distracted by the arrival of community resource officer Deputy Neil Gardner.  Gardner had just pulled up in the lower senior parking lot of the school with the lights on his patrol car flashing and the siren blaring. 

    Nielson and Anderson fled to the school library.  Nielson, hiding under the front counter, called 911.  Anderson sought refuge in the magazine room.

    Harris, just outside the double west doors, turned at the arrival of Deputy Neil Gardner.  From there, he exchanged gunfire with Gardner.