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PRC Missile and Space Forces

Endnotes

1China's 'Project 921' Men In Space, Philip Clark, Launchspace Publications, 1997.

2The participation of this individual, Qian Xuesen, in the PRC's ballistic missile programs is presented in detail later in this Chapter.

3 Department of Defense Briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

4 PRC biography of Qian Xuesen.

5 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

6 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

7 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

8 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

9 Ibid.

10 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

11 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

12 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

13 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

14 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

15 The Fifth Academy became the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building in 1965.

16 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

17 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

18 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995. Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, December 11, 1998.

19 "Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat," Department of Defense, 1998.

20 "China: Ballistic and Cruise Missiles," Shirley A. Kan, CRS, May 27, 1998.

21 Ibid.

22 Deposition of Robert Steinhauer, October 30, 1998.

23 "Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat," Department of Defense, 1998.

24 "China: Ballistic and Cruise Missiles," Shirley A. Kan, CRS, May 27, 1998.

25 Ibid.

26 Department of Defense, "Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat," 1998.

27 Ibid.

28 "China's New 'Old Thinking'," Alastair Iain Johnston, International Security, Winter 1995/96.

29 Statement of Robert Walpole at Carnegie Endowment.

30 Report of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, July 15, 1998.

31 "Future Challenges to Ballistic Missile Defenses," George Lewis and Theodore Postol, Spectrum, September 1997.

32 "U.S. Technology Builds 'Bridge' for China Missile," Jeff Gertz, The Washington Times, July 14, 1998.

33 "Russian Rocket Called Invincible; Designer Says It Can Penetrate Any 'Potential ABM System,'" David Hoffman, The Washington Post, February 25, 1999.

34 "Russia, Ukraine Get Stern Missile Warning," Bill Gertz, The Washington Times, May 21, 1996.

35 "Chinese Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Background and Analysis," Shirley Kan, Congressional Research Service, September 13, 1996.

36 Ibid.

37 "April 1995 Export Controls: Some Controls Over Missile-Related Technology Exports to China are Weak," F. James Shafer, et al., General Accounting Office, April 17, 1995.

38 "Chinese Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Background and Analysis," Shirley Kan, Congressional Research Service, September 13, 1996.

39 "U.S. Protests China Arms Move; Shipment of Missile Technology to Iran causes Concern," Bill Gertz, The Washington Times, December 7, 1998.

40 "Chinese Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Background and Analysis," Shirley Kan, Congressional Research Service, September 13, 1996.

41 Ibid.

42 Ibid.

43 "Chinese Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Current Policy Issues," Shirley Kan, Congressional Research Service, July 1, 1998.

44 "Chinese Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Background and Analysis," Shirley Kan, Congressional Research Service, September 13, 1996.

45 Thread of the Silkworm, Iris Chang, Basic Books, 1995.

46 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997, Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1998.

47 Testimony of Department of Defense, August 25, 1998.

48 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

49 Testimony of Department of Defense, August 25, 1998.

50 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

51 Ibid.

52 Testimony of Department of Defense, August 25, 1998.

53 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

54 "Encyclopedia Astronautica," Mark Wade, Web page.

55 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

56 Ibid.

57 Ibid.

58 "China's Space Program: A Brief Overview Including Commercial Launches of U.S.-Built Satellites," Marcia S. Smith, Congressional Research Service, June 23, 1998.

59 LM-3 Mission & LM-3B Failure: APSTAR-1A Pre-flight briefing, April 15-16, 1996.

60 "Space Launch Vehicles: Government Requirements and Commercial Competition," Marcia Smith, CRS, July 2, 1998.

61 Testimony of Ray Williamson, Space Policy Institute, November 13, 1998.

62 Testimony of Paul Wolfowitz before the Senate Committee on Commerce Science and Transportation, September 17, 1998.

63 The Reagan Administration's decision to relax export control regulations will be discussed in more detail in the chapter entitled "U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC." "China's Space Program: A Brief Overview Including Commercial Launches of U.S.-Built Satellites," Marcia Smith, CRS, June 23, 1998.

64 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

65 "China's Space Program: A Brief Overview Including Commercial Launches of U.S.-Built Satellites," Marcia Smith, CRS, June 23, 1998

66 "U.S. Manufactured Satellites Launched by China," Mike Evans.

67 For additional information on Western participation in PRC launch failure reviews, see Chapter 2. "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Hughes" and "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral." "U.S. Manufactured Satellites Launched by China," Mike Evans.

68 For additional information on Western participation in PRC launch failure reviews, see Chapter 2. "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Hughes" and "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral." "U.S. Manufactured Satellites Launched by China," Mike Evans.

69 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

70 Ibid.

71 Potential and Risks, Lin Sun, ICOM Publications, April 1998.

72 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

73 Ibid.

74 Potential and Risks, Lin Sun, ICOM Publications, April 1998.

75 Memorandum from D. McBrady to R. Berry, J. Reynolds, and C. Hoeber, "Summary Report on a Trip to China Oct./Nov. 1993," November 30, 1993.

76 Ibid.

77 "C-Band: Shaped Beam/Multifeed (PSR)," DailmerChrysler Aerospace Group.

78 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

79 Memorandum from D. McBrady to R. Berry, J. Reynolds, and C. Hoeber, "Summary Report on a Trip to China Oct./Nov. 1993," November 30,1993.

80 "Briefing for China Aerospace Corporation," Space Systems/Loral, September 1996.

81 "Memorandum of Agreement between China Aerospace Corporation and Space Systems/Loral regarding Long Term Cooperation," June 9, 1995.

82 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996, Memorandum for William Lowell, Department of State, "Adding of Additional End Users," August 14, 1998.

83 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

84 Potential and Risks, Lin Sun, ICOM Publications, April 1998.

85 Pyramid Research Asia, "VSAT Networks Flourish in China," 1994.

86 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

87 Ibid.

88 "China's Recoverable Satellite Program," Phillip Clark, Jane's Intelligence Review, November 1, 1993.

89 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

90 Ibid.

91 "China Space Program: A Brief Overview Including Commercial Launches of U.S.-Built Satellites," Marcia Smith, Congressional Research Service, June 23, 1998.

92 Jane's Space Directory, Ed. Phillip Clark, Jane's Information Group Limited, 1997.

93 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996.

94 Ibid.

95 "Singapore Telecom Pull Out of APMT," China Space News, May 1998.

96 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996.

97 APMT License Application 738807, 4 June 1998. Memorandum for William Lowell, "Adding of Additional End User," August 14, 1998.

98 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996.

99 "Asia-Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) System," Space Systems/Loral.

100 "Understanding the APMT Satellite Agreement," Hughes Electronics Corporation.

101 "Annex 16. Space Segment Technical Specification," Hughes Corporation, February 5, 1996. "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996.

102 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996. June 4, 1998, Memorandum for William Lowell, "Adding of Additional End User," August 14, 1998.

103 "Understanding the APMT Satellite Agreement," Hughes Electronics Corporation.

104 Ibid.

105 Department of Defense briefing to Select Committee, October 20, 1998.

106 "Hughes Will Build APMT Satellites," China Space News, May 1998, Deposition of Shen Jun, December 8, 1998.

107 "Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications (APMT) Program Briefing," Hughes Corporation, February 1996.

108 Memorandum for the Record: Claims that proposed Hughes satellite sale poses SIGINT risk, October 20, 1998.

109 "Fiscal Uncertainty Continues," Steven Watkins, Space News, December 7-13, 1998.

110 "Asian Economic Crisis Jolts Pacific Space Sector," Craig Covault, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 5, 1998.

111 "Fiscal Uncertainty Continues," Steven Watkins, Space News, December 7-13, 1998.

112 See "U.S. Rethinking a Satellite Deal Over Links to Chinese Military," Jeff Gerth, New York Times, June 18, 1998.

113 Deposition of Shen Jun, December 8, 1998.

114 Ibid.

115 Ibid.

116 Ibid.

117 Ibid.

118 Ibid.

119 Ibid.

120 Ibid.

121 Ibid.

122 Ibid.

123 Recognizing, of course, that the structural dynamics of one system are different from another. For example, the acoustic environment for a solid propellant missile is different than that for a liquid-propellant missile and, therefore, a guidance system from a liquid-propellant space launch vehicle may not function adequately in a solid-propellant ballistic missile. Memorandum for the Record, "Summary of Discussion with Michael Evans and Dr. Flax Regarding Acoustic Vibration in Ballistic Missiles," December 16, 1998.

124 "Benefits of Commercial Space Launch Assistance and Use for Foreign Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs," Dr. William Graham, presentation to Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, May 20, 1998.

125 Mark Wade, Encyclopedia Astronautica.

126 Report on the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, Appendix I: Technical Analyses.

127 See Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems and Jane's Space Directory, Phillip Clark ed., Jane's Information Group, 1997.

128 Jane's Space Directory, Phillip Clark ed., Jane's Information Group, 1997.

129 Report on the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, Appendix I: Technical Analyses.

130 "Benefits of Commercial Space Launch Assistance and Use for Foreign Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs," Dr. William Graham, presentation to Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, May 20, 1998.

131 Ibid.

132 Ibid.

133 Ibid.

134 Department of Defense, Response to Request of October 20, November 23, 1998.

135 Department of State, Response to Request of October 20, December 7, 1998.

136 Department of Commerce, Response to Request of October 20, November 3, 1998.

137 Central Intelligence Agency, Response to Request of October 20, October 29, 1998.

138 National Air and Space Administration, Response to Request of October 20, October 26, 1998.

139 "Benefits of Commercial Space Launch Assistance and Use for Foreign Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs," Dr. William Graham, presentation to Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, May 20, 1998.

140 Deposition of Robert Steinhauer, October 30, 1998.

141 "Answers to Launch Services Questions," He Xing, May 9, 1994.

142 Ibid.

143 Ibid.

144 "Question/Answer derived from the IMU specific splinter meeting," as part of the Meeting Minutes from the Second IRC Meeting, Materials provided to the Select Committee by Space Systems/Loral.

145 "Benefits of Commercial Space Launch Assistance and Use for Foreign Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs," Dr. William Graham, presentation to Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, May 20, 1998.

146 Jane's Space Directory, Phillip Clark ed., Jane's Information Group, 1997.

147 "Benefits of Commercial Space Launch Assistance and Use for Foreign Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs," Dr. William Graham, presentation to Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, May 20, 1998.

148 Ibid.

Back  |  Forward


COX REPORT

Overview
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

PRC Acquisition of U.S. Technology
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

PRC Theft of U.S. Nuclear Warhead Design Information
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5

High Performance Computers
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

PRC Missile and Space Forces
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Hughes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

Launch Site Security in the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6

Commercial Space Insurance
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Manufacturing Processes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Recommendations
pages 1 | 2 | 3

Appendices
pages introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F



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