ad info

CNN.com
 MAIN PAGE
 WORLD
 ASIANOW
 U.S.
 U.S. LOCAL
 ALLPOLITICS
  TIME
  analysis
  community
 WEATHER
 BUSINESS
 SPORTS
 TECHNOLOGY
 NATURE
 ENTERTAINMENT
 BOOKS
 TRAVEL
 FOOD
 HEALTH
 STYLE
 IN-DEPTH

 custom news
 Headline News brief
 daily almanac
 CNN networks
 on-air transcripts
 news quiz

 CNN WEB SITES:
CNN Websites
 TIME INC. SITES:
 MORE SERVICES:
 video on demand
 video archive
 audio on demand
 news email services
 free email accounts
 desktop headlines
 pointcast
 pagenet

 DISCUSSION:
 message boards
 chat
 feedback

 SITE GUIDES:
 help
 contents
 search

 FASTER ACCESS:
 europe
 japan

 WEB SERVICES:
 TIME on politics Congressional Quarterly CNN/AllPolitics CNN/AllPolitics - Storypage, with TIME and Congressional Quarterly

Manufacturing Processes

Endnotes

1 "Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 1305 of the FY97 National Defense Authorization Act," Defense Intelligence Agency, April 1997.

2 "Current and Future Challenges Facing Chinese Defense Industries," John Frankenstein and Bates Gill, China Quarterly, June 1996; and Gearing up for High-Tech Warfare, Richard Bitzinger and Bates Gill, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 1996.

3 "Current and Future Challenges Facing Chinese Defense Industries," John Frankenstein and Bates Gill, China Quarterly, June 1996.

4 Gearing up for High-Tech Warfare, Richard Bitzinger and Bates Gill, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 1996.

5 "Report on the Outline of the Ninth Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives to the Year 2010," Li Peng, Speech delivered to the Fourth Session of the Eighth National People╠s Congress on March 5, 1996.

6 "China: Domestic Change and Foreign Policy," Michael Swaine, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1995.

7 "Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 1305 of the FY97 National Defense Authorization Act," Defense Intelligence Agency, April 1997.

8 "Some Examples of Chinese Technology Targeting," from the Defense Intelligence Agency program briefing on "Project Worldtech," no date; and China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

9 Department of Defense, The Militarily Critical Technologies List. Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense, June 1996).

10 Defense Department report, February 1996.

11 Export Administration Regulations, Section 399.1, Supplement No. 1, Group 0, ECCN 1091A, January 1, 1986.

12 Export Administration Regulations, Part 774, Supplement No. 1, ECCN 2B001.

13 Export Administration Regulations, Part 738.4.

14 Export Administration Regulations, Part 774, Supplement No. 1, Category 2, Group B.

15 Export Administration Regulations, Part 774, Supplement No. 1, Category 2.

16 For example, the ECCN for numerically controlled machine tools is 2B001. The first "0" denotes that the reason for the control of machine tools with ECCN 2B001 is for national security reasons as opposed to a "1" (missile technology), a "2" (nuclear nonproliferation), a "3" (chemical & biological weapons), or a "9" (anti-terrorism, crime control and other factors). The second "0" indicates that the reason for control is for multilateral vice a unilateral ("9") concern. Export Administration Regulations Part 738.2.

17 General Accounting Office, Export Controls: Sensitive Machine Tool Exports to China GAO/NSIAD-97-4, November 1996.

18 Department of Defense, The Militarily Critical Technologies List (Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies (Washington, D.C., Department of Defense, June 1996).

19 It was noted that this information is mostly anecdotal and far from comprehensive.

20 The Association for Manufacturing Technology, "American Machine Tool Producers Unfairly Burdened by U.S. Export Controls," 1998.

21 Defense Department report, 1996.

22 The machine tool diversion reportedly remains under investigation by the Department of Justice.

23 E-mail from Iain Baird to Sue Eckert, May 27, 1994.

24 Memorandum for Deputy Assistant Secretary for Counterproliferation Policy from Acting Director/DTSA, June 8, 1994.

25 Defense Department document, 1994.

26 Memorandum for the Director, Strategic Trade Policy, Defense, DTSA from Chief, Technology Transfer Branch, Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division, DIA, July 27, 1994.

27 Memorandum for Director, Strategic Trade Policy, Defense, DTSA from Chief, Technology Transfer Branch, Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division, DIA, Subject: Chinese Acquisition of U.S. Machine Tools, August 9, 1994.

28 CATIC Inventory Lists.

29 Attachment B to Export License Application #C771659.

30 McDonnell Douglas briefing charts, June 7, 1994.

31 Flight International Magazine, edition of 20-26 July, 1994.

32 Memorandum for the Record authored by Dr. Peter Leitner, Senior Strategic Trade Advisor, DTSA, Subject: Telecon w/Joyce Poetzl and Bob Hitt, July 26, 1994. Memorandum for Executive Secretary, ACEP from Colonel Raymond Willson, Acting Director, Licensing Directorate, DTSA, August 5, 1994.

33 Interview of Elroy Christiansen, October 19, 1998.

34 GAO Report, Export Controls, Sensitive Machine Tool Exports to China, November 1996.

35 ACEP Minutes from June 24, 1994.

36 Ibid.

37 ACEP Minutes from July 28, 1994.

38 Memorandum for Commerce Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Administration Sue Eckert from Director DTSA Dave Tarbell, August 26, 1994.

39 Copies of McDonnell Douglas machine tool export licenses, September 14, 1994.

40 State Department cable 235206 to U.S. Embassy/Beijing, August 29, 1994.

41 U.S. Embassy Beijing cable 43102, September 13, 1994.

42 Flight International Magazine, edition of 20-26 July, 1994.

43 McDonnell Douglas Briefing Notes, June 7, 1994.

44 McDonnell Douglas letter to Office of Exporter Services/Technical Information Support Division, April 4, 1995. McDonnell Douglas Letter to Office of Export Enforcement, Springfield, VA, April 4, 1995.

45 Memorandum to Acting Director/OEE Menefee from DTSA/TSO, October 4, 1995.

46 CBS transcript, 60 Minutes program of June 7, 1998.

47 U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 120, No. 5, February 5, 1996. Letter to Undersecretary Reinsch from Senator D╠Amato, February 23, 1996. Draft Commerce letter to Senator D╠Amato, March 25, 1996. Representative Gilman letter to Reinsch, March 5, 1996.

48 General Accounting Office, Export Controls: Sensitive Machine Tool Exports to China GAO/NSIAD-97-4, November 1996.

49 Export Administration Regulations, Part 766.24(a).

50 Select Committee staff were afforded an opportunity to examine the TDO request, but Commerce officials declined to provide a copy of the document to the Select Committee based on a claim that the document contained law enforcement sensitive information regarding an active criminal investigation.

51 Letter to Douglas Aircraft Company President Robert Hood from CATIC Vice President Tang Xiaoping, September 30, 1993.

52 Appraisal, Williams & Lipton Company, March 1, 1994.

53 Telephone Interview of Douglas Monitto, October 20, 1998.

54 Telephone Interview of Douglas Monitto, October 20,1998. Memorandum of Understanding between CATIC, Monitor Aerospace and AVIC, January 24, 1994.

55 Letter to Lawrence W. Clarkson, Corporate Vice President, Planning and International Development, Boeing Company from Tang Xiaoping, Executive Vice President, CATIC, January 27, 1994.

56 Letter to Tang Xiaoping, from J.D. Masterson, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, April 6, 1994.

57 Telephone Interview of Douglas Monitto, October 20, 1998.

58 Letter to CATIC Deputy Managing Director Sun Deqing from Douglas Monitto from Monitto, July 29, 1994.

59 Letter to CATIC Deputy Managing Director Sun Deqing from Douglas Monitto, September 23, 1994.

60 Telephone Interview of Douglas Monitto, October 20, 1998.

61 Ibid.

62 Letter to McDonnell Douglas China Program Manager Bob Hitt from CATIC Supply Vice President Zhang Jianli, July 5, 1995.

63 Letter to Office of Export Enforcement from McDonnell Douglas reporting location of machine tools, April 4, 1994.

64 Letter to John Bruns, Senior Manager, McDonnell Douglas Corporation Beijing Office, March 27, 1994.

65 Memorandum to Joyce Poetzl from John Bruns and R. J. Hitt, Subject: Inspection of Machine Tools at Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Company, August 26, 1995.

66 In response to a Select Committee subpoena, CATIC USA, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CATIC, provided documents responsive to Committee╠s requests. Although a large number of the documents were in Chinese, most were provided with English translations. However, the transmittal letter that accompanied these documents indicated that CATIC (USA) could not guarantee the accuracy of the translations, although they had no reason to doubt their accuracy. Thus, in those instances in which a Chinese document is cited, the Select Committee is relying upon an English translation that accompanied that document. Letter to Rick Cinquegrana, Esq., Chief Investigative Counsel, Select Committee from Barbara Van Gelder, Esq., Wiley, Rein & Fielding, October 14, 1998.

67 Fax to Chris Riddle, McDonnell Douglas from Jenny Liu, TAL industries, August 19, 1994 and many others that reflect Ms. Liu of was in charge of the packout.

68 TAL Industries response to Interrogatories, November 6, 1998.

69 Ibid.

70 TAL Industries response to Interrogatories, November 6, 1998. CATIC (USA) response to Interrogatories, October 21, 1998.

71 Inventory List of materials and equipment sold to CATIC.

72 Export Administration Regulations, Part 730 and other sections.

73 CATIC fax, April 21, 1994. Weekly Report, May 31, 1994. Undated Chinese document. Fax from Nanchang to Hu Bo Ru, July 25, 1994.

74 Letter to Bob Hitt, Project Manager, China Program from Luo Huajie, Vice President of Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Company, September 23, 1995.

75 Ibid.

76 Ibid.

77 Letter to McDonnell Douglas China Program Manager Bob Hitt from CATIC Supply Vice President Zhang Jianli, July 5, 1995.

78 DIA report, 1995. See also The Militarily Critical Technologies List. Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies, Department of Defense, June 1996, sec. 10; and "Report of Foreign Travel," Ronald V. Miskell, U.S. Department of Energy, February 1998.

79 China Today: Defense Science and Technology, Xie Guang, ed., Beijing National Defense Industry Press, 1993; and Gearing up for High-Tech Warfare, Richard Bitzinger and Bates Gill, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 1996.

80 See also The Militarily Critical Technologies List. Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies, Department of Defense, June 1996, sec. 1.

81 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

82 "Cruise Control: Relaxed U.S. Export Controls Could Help China Build Stealthier and Longer-Range Cruise Missiles, Pentagon Officials Claim," Nigel Holloway, Far Eastern Economic Review, August 14, 1997.

83 "PLAAF & Aviation Production Overview," Kenneth W. Allen, Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, D.C., 1998.

84 "PRC Gas Turbine Acquisition Efforts," Peter Leitner, Department of Defense, Defense Technology Security Administration, September 1, 1992.

85 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

86 "A jet engine is composed of three sections: the cold section, or the fan and compressor, which is where the air enters the engine; the hot section, comprised of the combustor and portions of the turbine, which are the components exposed to combustion gases; and the warm section, or exhaust nozzle, which is where the exhaust gases leave the engine." . Export Controls: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items GAO/NSIAD-97-24, January 1997. See also China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

87 Background Paper, Defense Intelligence Agency, 1993.

88 Background Paper, Defense Intelligence Agency, 1993.

89 Memorandum for the Record, December 17, 1998. William Schneider described this incident during a briefing on the dual-use applications of high performance computers. William Schneider, briefing on "High Performance (HPC) Exports to China," October 1, 1998. See also Defense Intelligence Agency, 1993.

90 Defense Intelligence Agency, 1993.

91 Background Paper, Defense Intelligence Agency, 1993.

92 Export Controls: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items GAO/NSIAD-97-24, January 1997, p. 5, (B22); and The Militarily Critical Technologies List. Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies, Department of Defense, June 1996, sec. 1.

93 Memorandum for the Record, October 30, 1998.

94 "PLAAF & Aviation Production Overview," Kenneth W. Allen, Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, D.C., 1998.

95 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997, pp. 67, 70, (B172); and "PRC Gas Turbine Acquisition Efforts" Memorandum by Peter Leitner, Defense Technology Security Administration, September 1, 1992.

96 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

97 Ibid.

98 "PRC Gas Turbine Acquisition Efforts" Memorandum by Peter Leitner, Defense Technology Security Administration, September 1, 1992; and "Garrett Engine Case," Memorandum from Peter Leitner, DTSA, to Barbara Dixon, Defense Intelligence Agency, July 21, 1992.

99 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

100 "WP-11 Engine Information," James Clauson, Jane╠s Information Group, June 26, 1996.

101 Ibid.

102 Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, January 7, 1993.

103 "Cruise Control: Relaxed U.S. Export Controls Could Help China Build Stealthier and Longer-Range Cruise Missiles, Pentagon Officials Claim," Nigel Holloway, Far Eastern Economic Review, August 14, 1997; and "Williams FJ44," Jane╠s All the World╠s Aircraft 1990-1991, Jane╠s Information Group, 1990.

104 "Morphing the Silkworm," Dennis Gormley and Gregory DeSantis, Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation, Arlington, Virginia, Presentation to the Rumsfeld Commission, June 3, 1998; and China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

105 "Cruise Control: Relaxed U.S. Export Controls Could Help China Build Stealthier and Longer-Range Cruise Missiles, Pentagon Officials Claim," Nigel Holloway, Far Eastern Economic Review, August 14, 1997.

106 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

107 Memorandum for the Record, Review of State Department Cables Regarding Allied Signal/Garrett Jet engine Negotiations with the PRC, December 17, 1998. The relevant State Department cable█DTG 161312Z July 92, #0148838-0148839█was sent to Commerce, State and Defense. See also "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

108 A history of the Garrett case is presented in "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992. See also "Issue Paper on Garrett Engine Sale to PRC," Attachment to "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC," Memorandum from Peter M. Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992.

109 "NAMC/PAC K-8 Karakorum," Richard L. Aboulafia, World Military & Civil Aircraft Briefing, Teal Group Corp., Arlington, Virginia, March 1998.

110 The K-8 is reportedly intended to serve primarily as a jet trainer. However, to meet future combat mission requirements and increase the potential for exports, the PRC designed the K-8 to carry a variety of armaments, including a gun pod, two air-to-air missiles, a 12-round rocket pod, or a bomb. "Myanmar is First Export Customer for K-8 Trainer," Bruce Hawke, Jane╠s Defense Weekly, June 24, 1998.

111 "NAMC/PAC K-8 Karakorum," Richard L. Aboulafia, World Military & Civil Aircraft Briefing, Teal Group Corp., Arlington, Virginia, March 1998.

112 Memorandum from Peter Leitner to Peter Sullivan, Defense Technology Secuirty Administration, December 30, 1992.

113 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

114 "Type Certification Data Sheet No. E6WE," Federal Aviation Administration, March 23, 1998.

115 The Federal Aviation Administration can certify a jet engine as "civil" if it meets certain safety and other requirements for civil aviation. Military engines that meet such requirements can be certified as civil through this process. A civil certification places the engines on the Commerce Control List, giving Commerce authority to license exports, pursuant to Export Administration Act Section 17(c) on Civil Aircraft Equipment. However, Section 17(c) states that Commerce has jurisdiction over civil aircraft equipment that "is to be exported to a country other than a controlled country." The PRC was a "controlled country" during the time of the Garrett case. Iain Baird believed that in-as-much as the statute mandated inclusion of civil aircraft engines to some destinations on the Commerce Control List (CCL), it was decided to put the item as a whole on the list. Commerce was unable to provide a formal legal analysis of 17 (c) with respect to exports of civil aircraft equipment to controlled countries. Civil certification issues and EAA Section 17(c) are discussed in, Interview of Iain S. Baird, November 17, 1998; and Interview of Bruce C. Webb, December 2, 1998. For the response to the Select Committee╠s request for records regarding commodity jurisdiction, see letter from John F. Sopko, Chief Counsel for Special Matters, Department of Commerce, to Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks, December 14, 1998.

116 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

117 Ibid.

118 Ibid.

119 Ibid.

120 Ibid.

121 Ibid.

122 Ibid.

123 Ibid.

124 "Type Certification Data Sheet No. E6WE," Federal Aviation Administration, March 23, 1988.

125 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

126 Ibid.

127 The revised Export Administration Regulations are presented in Export Administration Regulations, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration, 1991, sections 9A01 and 9E03. FADECs are described in Interview of Bruce C. Webb, December 2, 1998; and The Militarily Critical Technologies List. Part I: Weapons Systems Technologies, Department of Defense, June 1996, sec.1.

128 Interview of Bruce C. Webb, December 2, 1998.

129 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

130 Ibid.

131 Ibid.

132 Ibid.

133 Commerce Form Letter to Allied Signal from Commerce Licensing Officer E.G. Christiansen, Subject: Advice on Amendment Request Returned Without Action, November 25, 1991; "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVLD130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

134 "Issue Paper on Garrett Engine Sale to PRC," Attachment to "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC," Memorandum from Peter M. Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992.

135 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

136 Interview of Bruce C. Webb, December 2, 1998.

137 For the request for records, see letter from Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks to William M. Daley, Secretary of Commerce, November 20, 1998. For Commerce╠s response, see letter from John F. Sopko, Chief Counsel for Special Matters, Department of Commerce, to Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks, December 14, 1998.

138 For the request for records, see letter from Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks to William M. Daley, Secretary of Commerce, November 20, 1998.

139 Interview of Peter Leitner, November 24, 1998.

140 "Issue Paper on Garrett Engine Sale to PRC," Attachment to "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC," Memorandum from Peter M. Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992.

141 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

142 "Issue Paper on Garrett Engine Sale to PRC," Attachment to "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC" Memorandum from Peter M. Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992; and "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

143 "Report to the Congress: Imposition of Foreign Policy Export Controls Under the Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative," Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration, February 1991.

144 "Imposition and Expansion of Foreign Policy Controls," Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration, August 15, 1991.

145 Interview of Iain S. Baird, November 17, 1998.

146 See letter from John F. Sopko, Chief Counsel for Special Matters, Department of Commerce, to Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks, December 14, 1998.

147 Memorandum from Defense Intelligence Agency, 1992.

148 "WP-11 Engine Information," James Clauson, Jane╠s Information Group, Alexandria, Virginia, June 26, 1996.

149 Memorandum to Ken Weiss, Arms Control; and Disarmament Agency, 1993; and Defense Intelligence Agency.

150 F. Michael Maloof, Director, Technology Security Operations, DTSA, to U.S. Department of Commerce, August 11, 1992.

151 Interview of Peter Leitner, November 24, 1998. See also letter from F. Michael Maloof, Director, Technology Security Operations, DTSA, to U.S. Department of Commerce, August 11, 1992.

152 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

153 See "Issue Paper on Garrett Engine Sale to PRC," Attachment to "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC," Memorandum from Peter Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992. See also "Garrett TFE-731-2A," Memorandum from M. Agnello, Senior Engineer, Controls & Integrated Systems, Naval Air Warfare Center, to Charles H. Craig, Senior Engineer, Technical Directorate, DTSA/OSD, November 30, 1993; and "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendations of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

154 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

155 Ibid.

156 Ibid.

157 "China Shops: Fact from Fiction," Fact sheet attached to "The China Shop Fact Sheet," Memorandum to Mark Kron from Iain S. Baird, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, Department of Commerce, February 26, 1995.

158 "Gas Turbine Engines," Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 12, 1998; and "AlliedSignal TFE731," Jane╠s All the World╠s Aircraft 1995-96, Jane╠s Information Group, 1995.

159 "Engineering Analysis and Technical Policy Recommendation of General Exception Status in CoCom of DOC IVL D130990," Memorandum from Clarence M. Griffin, Director, DTSA Technology Directorate, to the Acting Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Trade Security Policy) and DTSA Director, December 21, 1992.

160 Letter from Martha Harris, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Controls, Bureau of Political Military Affairs, Department of State, to Mitchel B. Wallerstein, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Counterproliferation Policy, April 1, 1994.

161 Interview of Peter Leitner, November 24, 1998.

162 Interview of Iain S. Baird, November 17, 1998.

163 Interview of Bruce C. Webb, December 2, 1998.

164 For the request for records, see letter from Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks to William M. Daley, Secretary of Commerce, November 20, 1998. For Commerce╠s response, see letter from John F. Sopko, Chief Counsel for Special Matters, Department of Commerce, to Chairman Christopher Cox and Ranking Member Norm Dicks, December 14, 1998.

165 "Export of Garrett Engines to the PRC," Memorandum from Peter M. Sullivan, Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, December 29, 1992.

166 Letter from Mitchel B. Wallerstein, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Counterproliferation Policy, to Martha Harris, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Controls, Bureau of Political Military Affairs, Department of State, March 21, 1994.

167 Interview of Mitchel B. Wallerstein, November 25, 1998.

168 Letter from Martha Harris, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Controls, Bureau of Political Military Affairs, Department of State, to Mitchel B. Wallerstein, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Counterproliferation Policy, April 1, 1994.

169 "OCM 93-271/D184525█Allied Signal Aerospace Co.█Eighteen Garrett Engines," Meeting record for the Operating Committee on Export Policy, August 19, 1993.

170 "Allied Signal Ends Plans to Coproduce Engines in China," Eduardo Lachica, The Wall Street Journal, October 27, 1995.

171 Ibid.

172 "China Aviation Project in Doubt," South China Morning Post, May 15, 1996.

173 US Technology Transfers to the People╠s Republic of China, Kathleen Walsh, DFI International, Washington, D.C., December 1997.

174 United Technologies Corporation╠s Responses to Written Interrogatories, November 16, 1998.

175 China╠s Aerospace Industry, Jane╠s Information Group, 1997.

176 Ibid.

177 United Technologies Corporation╠s Responses to Written Interrogatories, November 16, 1998.

178 "Pakistan says it is Studying Errant U.S. Missile," Kamran Khan, The Washington Post, August 28, 1998.

179 National Academy of Engineering, The Competitive Status of the U. S. Machine Tool Industry, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., 1983.

180 S. Kalpakjian, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Third Edition, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.

181 Ibid.

182 P. M. Shanahan, Large Scale Systems Integration, Frontiers of Engineering, National Academy Press,Washington, D. C., 1996.

183 The Economist, Factory of the Future, May 20, 1987.

184 M.E. Merchant, Intelligent Manufacturing- Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, Unpublished Paper, 1998.

185 Machinery╠s Handbook, 25th Edition, Industrial Press Inc.

186 Department of Defense, MilitarilyCritical Technologies List, Section 10.

187 S. Kalpakjian, Loc. Cit.

188 Chinese Plant Survey-Committee Files.

189 R. H. Todd, D.K. Allen, and L.Alting, Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide, Industrial Press Inc.,N. Y., 1994.

190 S. Kalpakjian, Loc. Cit

191 Ibid.

192 Ibid.

193 R. H. Todd, D. K. Allen, and L. Alting, Loc. Cit.

194 Ibid.

195 Ibid.

196 Ibid.

197 S. Kalpakjian, Loc. Cit.

198 Proceedings of the International Conference on Precision Engineering and the 6th Sino-Japan Joint Seminar on Ultraprecision Technology on September 23-25, 1996 in Shenyang, China, Northeastern University Press.

199 L. F. Vesteen and R. N. Hadcock, Composite Chronicles: A Study of Lessons Learned in Development, Production,and Service of Composite Structures, NASA Contractor Report 4620, November, 1994.

200 B. C. Hoskins and A. A. Baker, Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc., 1986, Vol. I.

201 M.M. Schwartz, Composite Materials, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N. J., 1997, Vol.II.

202 B.R. Rich and L. Janos, Skunk Works, Little Brown Company,Boston, 1994.

203 B. C. Hoskins and A. A. Baker, Loc. Cit.

204 M. M. Schwartz , Loc. Cit.

205 S. A. Resetar, J. C. Rogers, and R. W. Hess, Advanced Airframe Structural Materials, Rand Report 4016- A F.

206 P. Donguy and J. Broca, High Temperature Composite Materials for Rocket Propulsion NATO AGARD CP-449, March 1989.

207 D. W. Petrasek and J. R. Stephens, Fiber Reinforced Superalloys for Rocket Engines, NATO AGARD

CP- 449, March 1989.

208 Peter Leitner Paper.

209 "Understanding Stealth," John Shaeffer.

210 Ibid.

211 Ibid.

212 Ibid.

213 Ibid.

214 Ibid.

215 Ibid.

216 Ib id.

217 Ibid.

218 Ibid.

219 Ibid.

220 Ibid.

221 Ibid.

222 Letter from the Secretary of Defense (Cheney) to the Secretary of Commerce (Mosbacher), April 21, 1989.

223 Department of Defense Militarily Critical Technology List.

224 Department of Defense Stealth Study, Ref: 0149467.

225 Department of Defense Stealth Study, Ref: 0149454.

226 FORDTIS Export License Printout, Ref: 0148821.

227 FORDTIS Export License Printout, Ref: 0148826.

228 FORDTIS Export License Printout, Ref: 0148821.

229 Department of Defense Stealth Study, Ref: 0149455.

230 Hexcel Briefing to DFTA, November 15, 1994.

231 Ibid.

232 FORDTIS Export License Printout, Ref: 0148812.

233 FORDTIS Export License Printout, Ref: 0148815.

234 Hexcel Briefing to DFTA, November 15, 1994.

235 Ibid..

236 Ibid.

237 Ibid.

238 Department of Defense Stealth Study, Ref: 0149453.

239 Ibid.

240 Sikorsky S-92 Documents.

241 Ibid.

242 Ibid.

Back  |  Forward


COX REPORT

Overview
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

PRC Acquisition of U.S. Technology
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

PRC Theft of U.S. Nuclear Warhead Design Information
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5

High Performance Computers
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

PRC Missile and Space Forces
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Hughes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

Launch Site Security in the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6

Commercial Space Insurance
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Manufacturing Processes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Recommendations
pages 1 | 2 | 3

Appendices
pages introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F



Search CNN/AllPolitics
          Enter keyword(s)       go    help





© 1999 Cable News Network, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Terms under which this service is provided to you.
Read our privacy guidelines.
Who we are.