ad info

CNN.com
 MAIN PAGE
 WORLD
 ASIANOW
 U.S.
 U.S. LOCAL
 ALLPOLITICS
  TIME
  analysis
  community
 WEATHER
 BUSINESS
 SPORTS
 TECHNOLOGY
 NATURE
 ENTERTAINMENT
 BOOKS
 TRAVEL
 FOOD
 HEALTH
 STYLE
 IN-DEPTH

 custom news
 Headline News brief
 daily almanac
 CNN networks
 on-air transcripts
 news quiz

 CNN WEB SITES:
CNN Websites
 TIME INC. SITES:
 MORE SERVICES:
 video on demand
 video archive
 audio on demand
 news email services
 free email accounts
 desktop headlines
 pointcast
 pagenet

 DISCUSSION:
 message boards
 chat
 feedback

 SITE GUIDES:
 help
 contents
 search

 FASTER ACCESS:
 europe
 japan

 WEB SERVICES:
 TIME on politics Congressional Quarterly CNN/AllPolitics CNN/AllPolitics - Storypage, with TIME and Congressional Quarterly

U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC

Endnotes

1 P.L. 96-72, 93 Stat. 503, 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2401-2420.
2 22 U.S.C. sec. 2751-2799.
3 P.L. 95-223, 91 Stat. 1628, 50 U.S.C. sec. 1701-1706.
4 P.L. 103-10 (March 27, 1993); P.L. 103-277 (July 5, 1994).
5 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 3; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2402(2).
6 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 5-7; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2404-2406.
7 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 5(b); 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2404(b).
8 Export Administration Regulations, part 772, definition of "controlled country."
9 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 6; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2405.
10 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 738.2.
11 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 6(a)(3); 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2405(a)(3).
12 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 6(f); 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2405(f).
13 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 7(a)(1); 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2406.
14 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 7; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2406.
15 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 3; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2402.
16 Interview of Steven C. Goldman, October 29, 1998.
17 "Toward a National Export Strategy - Report to the United States Congress," Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee, September 30, 1993.
18 "Export Controls and Non-proliferation Regimes in the Post-Cold War World," testimony of Under Secretary for International Security Affairs Lynn E. Davis before the Senate Subcommittee on International Affairs and Monetary Policy, February 24, 1994.
19 Export Administration Annual Report 1994 and 1995 Report on Foreign Policy Export Controls.
20 Interview of James A. Lewis, October 30, 1998.
21 Ibid.
22 Interview of R. Roger Majak, November 12, 1998.
23 Ibid.
24 Interview of James A. Lewis, October 30, 1998.
25 Export Administration Regulations, part 774, Supplement No. 1.
26 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 121.1.
27 Interview of James A. Lewis, October 30, 1998.
28 Ibid.
29 Ibid.
30 The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, Initial Elements, July 11-12, 1996, sec. II.6.
31 Interview of James A. Lewis, October 30, 1998.
32 Interview of R. Roger Majak, November 12, 1998.
33 "Australia Group" fact sheet, October 27, 1997 (http://www.acda.gov/).
34 "Australia Group," Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, fact sheet, October 28, 1997.
35 Interview of Steven C. Goldman, October 29, 1998.
36 Ibid.
37 "China - Lifting of Missile Sanctions," statement by Margaret Tutwiler, Department of State, February 21, 1992, Department of Commerce document.
38 Interview of Steven C. Goldman, October 29, 1998; "China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology," CRS Report to Congress, July 21, 1998.
39 "COCOM and the COCOM Successor Regime," Department of Commerce document.
40 Interview of Steven C. Goldman, October 29, 1998.
41 Executive Order 12735, Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation, November 16, 1990.
42 Federal Register, 58 FR 68029; Export Administration Annual Report 1995 and 1996 Report on Foreign Policy Export Controls.
43 Export Administration Regulations, part 744, Supplement No. 4.
44 "Private/Public Awareness Program - FY99 Budget Proposal," Department of Commerce document.
45 Interview of Steven C. Goldman, October 29, 1998.
46 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 730.2.
47 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 730.1; the Export Administration Regulations appear at 15 CFR parts 730-774.
48 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 730.3.
49 Ibid.
50 Bureau of Export Administration Annual Report to Congress, 1996.
51 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 774.1, Supplement No. 1.
52 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 774.1, Supplement No. 2.
53 "A Report of the Rationalization of the U.S. Munitions List with the Commerce Control List as Required by the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Report: Toward a National Export Policy," August 1994, Department of Commerce document.
54 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 774.1, Supplement No. 1.
55 Export Administration Regulations, part 738, Supplement No. 1.
56 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 738.1(b).
57 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 738.2(d)(2)(i)(A).
58 Export Administration Regulations, part 740.
59 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 740.1.
60 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 740.5, License Exception Civil end-users (CIV); identified as "CIV - Yes" on the Commerce Control List.
61 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 740.5 and part 740, Supplement No. 1, Country Group D:1.
62 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 740.7.
63 Export Administration Regulations, part 744.
64 Arms Export Control Act; 22 U.S.C. sec. 2751-2799.
65 22 U.S.C. sec. 2778.
66 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 120.2 and 120.3.
67 Ibid.
68 Ibid.
69 Ibid.
70 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-418, August 23, 1988), sec. 5021.
71 Defense Production Act, sec. 721.
72 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1998 (P.L. 100-418, August 23, 1998), sec. 5021.
73 Ibid.
74 Ibid.
75 Economic Espionage Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-294, October 11, 1996), sec. 101.
76 O╠Malley, Edward, "Economic Espionage Act," The Intelligencer, Fall 1998.
77 Economic Espionage Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-294, October 11, 1996), sec. 101.
78 Ibid.
79 O╠Malley, Edward, "Economic Espionage Act," The Intelligencer, Fall 1998.
80 Ibid.
81 "Overview of the Export Administration Program," Department of Commerce, March 1985.
82 Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-64, July 12, 1985).
83 "Special Interagency Review: The Federal Government╠s Export Licensing Processes for Munitions and Dual-Use Commodities," September 1993; See also "Nuclear Nonproliferation: Export Licensing Procedures for Dual-Use Items Need to Be Strengthened," (GAO/NSIAD-94-119) April 26, 1994; "Export Controls: Some Controls Over Missile-Related Technology Exports To China Are Weak" (GAO/NSIAD-95-82), April 17, 1995.
84 Executive Order 12981 (Administration of Export Controls, December 5, 1995).
85 Ibid.
86 In summary, Executive Order 12981 (Administration of Export Controls, December 5, 1995) specifies the following deadlines: initial processing by Commerce, 9 days; referral to other departments and agencies, end of the ninth day; return to Commerce of recommendations to approve or disapprove by other departments and agencies, 30 days; review of disputes and decision by the Chair of the Operating Committee, 14 days; appeal to the ACEP of the decision by a department or agency, 5 days; review of appeal and majority vote decision of the ACEP, 11 days; appeal of the ACEP decision by a department or agency, 5 days; review of appeal and majority vote decision of the Export Administration Review Board, 11 days; and appeal of the majority vote decision of the Export Administration Review Board to the President by a department or agency, 5 days.
87 "Commercial Communications Satellites and Hot Section Technology for the Development, Production or Overhaul of Commercial Aircraft Engines," Federal Register, October 21, 1996, Vol. 61, No. 204.
88 Executive Order 13020 (Amendment to Executive Order 12981, October 12, 1996).
89 Executive Order 13026 (Administration of Export Controls on Encryption Products, November 15, 1996).
90 Interview of Carol A. Kalinoski, November 3, 1998.
91 Ibid.
92 Ibid.
93 Bureau of Export Administration 1997 Annual Report.
94 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 750.4(b)(2).
95 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 12; 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2411.
96 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 750.4(b)(2).
97 "Nuclear Nonproliferation: Export Licensing Procedures for Dual-Use Items Need to Be Strengthened"; see, e.g. GAO/NSIAD-94-119, April 26, 1994.
98 "Special Interagency Review: The Federal Government╠s Export Licensing Processes for Munitions and Dual-Use Commodities," September 1993; "Nuclear Nonproliferation: Export Licensing Procedures for Dual-Use Items Need to Be Strengthened," (GAO/NSIAD-94-119) April 26, 1994; "Export Controls: Some Controls Over Missile-Related Technology Exports To China Are Weak"(GAO/NSIAD-95-82) April 17, 1995; "Export Controls: Information on the Decision to Revise High Performance Computer Controls," GAO/NSIAD-98-196, September 16, 1998.
99 Export Administration Regulations, part 772.
100 Effective October 1, 1998, the Defense Technology Security Administration (DTSA) was renamed the "Technology Security Directorate" and became part of the new Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).
101 "Export Controls: Some Controls Over Missile-Related Technology Exports To China Are Weak," (GAO/NSIAD-95-82) April 17, 1995.
102 Interview of James A. Lewis, October 30, 1998.
103 "Export Controls: Some Controls Over Missile-Related Technology Exports To China Are Weak," (GAO/NSIAD-95-82) April 17, 1995.
104 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 730.9(b).
105 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 764.5(b)(4).
106 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 11(b); 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2410(a).
107 Ibid.
108 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 11(c)(1), 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2412(c)(1).
109 Iran Air v. Kugelman, 996 F.2d 1253 (D.C.Cir. 1993).
110 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 764.3(a)(2).
111 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 11(h), 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2412(h); Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985, sec. 112(c)(2); Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, sec. 2426.
112 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 766.24.
113 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 750.8(a) and sec. 740.2(b).
114 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 764.3(a)(3).
115 Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, sec. 12(a), 50 U.S.C. app. sec. 2413(a).
116 International Emergency Economic Powers Act, sec. 206(a), 50 U.S.C. sec. 1705.
117 Ibid.
118 Interview of William A. Reinsch, November 19, 1998.
119 Export Administration Regulations, part 774, Supplement No. 1.
120 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 748.3.
121 "Procedures on Commodity Jurisdiction and Commodity Classification," National Security Council memorandum, April 15, 1996, White House document.
122 "Response to November 2, 1998 Cox Request Regarding Commodity Classifications," December 23, 1998, Department of Commerce document.
123 Interview of Iain S. Baird, November 17, 1998.
124 Ibid.
125 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
126 Ibid.
127 Ibid.
128 Ibid.
129 Ibid.
130 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 120.
131 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
132 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998; Executive Order 12981 (Administration of Export Controls, December 5, 1995).
133 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
134 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 120.3.
135 Export Administration Regulations, part 768.
136 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 120.4.
137 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
138 Ibid.
139 Memorandum, "Procedures on Commodity Jurisdiction and Commodity Classification," April 15, 1996, White House document.
140 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
141 Ibid.
142 Ibid.
143 Ibid.
144 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 120.8 and 123.15.
145 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998; International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 123.15. Regarding exports of major defense equipment to NATO countries, 15 calendar days are required to lapse after notification to Congress before the license is approved; regarding such exports to any other destination, including the PRC, 30 calendar days are required to lapse.
146 Ibid.
147 Ibid.
148 Ibid.
149 22 U.S.C. sec. 2778(e); International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 127.3.
150 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 127.7, 127.8 and 127.6.
151 International Traffic in Arms Regulations, sec. 127.12(b)(3).
152 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
153 Ibid.
154 Export Administration Annual Report FY 1986; "Background Paper on U.S. Export Licensing Policy for the PRC," Department of Commerce document.
155 Background Paper on U.S. Export Licensing Policy for the PRC, Department of Commerce document.
156 Export Administration Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990.
157 Memorandum of Agreement on Satellite Technology Safeguards between the Governments of the United States of America and the People╠s Republic of China, signed December 17, 1988, Department of Commerce document.
158 Memorandum of Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People╠s Republic of China regarding International Trade in Commercial Launch Services, signed December 17, 1988.
159 Memorandum of Agreement on Liability for Satellite Launches Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People╠s Republic of China, signed December 17, 1988.
160 Memorandum of Agreement on Satellite Technology Safeguards Between the Governments of the United States of America and the People╠s Republic of China, signed February 11, 1993, Department of Commerce document.
161 Memorandum of Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People╠s Republic of China regarding International Trade in Commercial Launch Services, signed January 27, 1995, Department of Commerce document.
162 Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People╠s Republic of China to Amend the Memorandum of Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People╠s Republic of China regarding International Trade in Commercial Trade Services, signed October 27, 1997.
163 Freedenberg, Paul, Senate, Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee Hearing, September 17, 1998.
164 Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990 (November 21, 1989), sec. 610.
165 Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (February 16, 1990).
166 "Chronology Concerning Presidential Waivers of Sanctions, Exports of Satellites to China, and a Criminal Investigation on Loral Space and Communications Co. for Allegedly Passing Missile Technology to China," CRS Memorandum to House International Relations Committee, April 28, 1998; "China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology," CRS Report, July 21, 1998.
167 Letter to the Honorable Newt Gingrich, Speaker of the House of Representatives from President William J. Clinton, February 18, 1998, White House document.
168 Gerth, Jeff, "U.S. Business Role in Policy on China is Under Question," New York Times, April 13, 1998.
169 Gerth, Jeff and John M. Broder, "Papers Show White House Staff Favored a China Satellite Permit," New York Times, May 23, 1998; "Request for Presidential National Interest Waiver for Chinasat 8 Communications Satellite Project," Memorandum for the President from Samuel L. Berger, Larry Stein, and Daniel Tarullo, February 12, 1998, White House document.
170 "Waiver of Tiananmen Square Sanctions," Memorandum for the President from Phil Caplan, February 18, 1988.
171 Interview of Robert S. Litt, December 8, 1988.
172 "Waiver of Tiananmen Square Sanctions," memorandum for the President from Phil Caplan, February 18, 1988.
173 Department of Commerce document; interview of Robert S. Litt, December 8, 1988.
174 "Request for Presidential National Interest Waiver for Chinasat 8 Communications Satellite Project," draft Memorandum for the President.
175 "Request for a Presidential National Interest Waiver for Exports to China for the Chinasat Satellite Program," Memorandum from William J. Burns, Executive Secretary, Department of State, to Glyn T. Davies, Executive Secretary, National Security Council, January 8, 1998.
176 "Request for Presidential National Interest Waiver for Chinasat 8 Communications Satellite Project," Memorandum for the President, February 12, 1998.
177 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (P.L. 101-510, November 5, 1990), sec. 1702 and 1703.
178 "U.S. Sanctions Authority," Department of Commerce document.
179 "China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology," CRS Report for Congress, July 21, 1998.
180 Federal Register, July 17, 1991.
181 "Status of U.S. Tiananmen Sanctions," Department of Commerce document.
182 "China - Lifting of Missile Sanctions," Department of State, Press Statement, February 21, 1992, Department of Commerce document.
183 "China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology," CRS Report for Congress, July 21, 1998.
184 Federal Register, July 17, 1991
185 "MTCR Category Sanctions on China and Pakistan," Department of Commerce document.
186 "Joint Statement of the United States of America and the People╠s Republic of China on Missile Proliferation," Department of Commerce document; "MTCR Issues with China and Hong Kong," Department of Commerce document.
187 A chronology of possible MTCR violations are listed in CRS Memorandum to Representative Curt Weldon, "Chronology of Chinese Weapon related Transfers," August 31, 1998.
188 "A Report on the Rationalization of the U.S. Munitions List with the Commerce Control List As Required by the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Report: Toward a National Export Strategy," August 1994, Department of Commerce document.
189 Ibid.
190 Memorandum of Disapproval for the Omnibus Export Amendments Act of 1990 (H.R. 4653), November 16, 1990, 26 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 1839.
191 [State ITAR changes]; "Revisions to the Commerce Control List; Transfer of Communication Satellites from the U.S. Munitions List," Federal Register, Vol. 57, No. 206, October 23, 1992.
192 "Removal of Commercial Communications Satellites and Hot Section Technology From State╠s USML for Transfer to Commerce╠s CCL," Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 215, November 5, 1996; "Revisions to the Commerce Control List; Transfer of Communication Satellites from the U.S. Munitions List, "Federal Register, Vol. 57, No. 206, October 23, 1992.
193 Export Enhancement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-429, October 21, 1992), sec. 201.
194 "Toward a National Export Strategy - Report to the United States Congress," Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee, September 30, 1993.
195 Ibid.
196 Ibid.
197 Advocacy Center Home Page (http://www.ita.doc.gov/advocacy); "Background Data for Companies Seeking U.S. Advocacy Support" form (OMB No. 0625-0220), Department of Commerce document; "Agreement Concerning Bribery and Corporate Policy Prohibiting Bribery" form, Department of Commerce document.
198 "Commercial Communications Satellites," Department of Commerce document.
199 Transmittal letter with White Paper from C. Michael Armstrong to Anthony Lake, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, March 13, 1995, Department of Commerce document.
200 "Imposition of Foreign Policy Export Controls on Commercial Communications Satellites and Hot Section Technology for the Development and Production of Civil Gas Turbine Engines," report to Congress, March 1996, Department of Commerce document.
201 Letter to Samuel R. Berger, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, from C. Michael Armstrong, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Hughes Electronics, September 22, 1995, White House document.
202 Letter to President from C. Michael Armstrong, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Hughes Electronics Corporation, Bernard L. Schwartz, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Loral Corporation, and Daniel M. Tellep, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation, October 6, 1995, White House document.
203 "Civil Communications Satellites - Options for Control and Licensing," sec. V.2, Department of Commerce document; Department of Commerce Press Release, March 14, 1996, Department of Commerce document; "Satellite Exports: Nobody Was Overruled," Warren Christopher, Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1998.
204 "Commercial Communications Satellites and Hot Section Technology for the Development, Production or Overhaul of Commercial Aircraft Engines," Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 204, October 21, 1996.
205 "USML Transfers to the CCL," undated, Department of Commerce document.
206 Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (October 17, 1998), sec. 1513.
207 Ibid.
208 Ibid.
209 Ibid.
210 Opall-Rome, Barbara, "White House Plans Dilution of Export Law," Space News, Vol. 9, No. 17, December 7-13, 1998.
211 Export Administration Annual Report Fiscal Year 1991.
212 "Export Controls on Supercomputers," Federal Register, Vol. 57, No. 96, May 18, 1992.
213 Export Administration Annual Report 1992.
214 Letter to Edward McCracken, Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Graphics from President William J. Clinton, September 15, 1993, White House document.
215 "Toward a National Export Strategy - Report to the United States Congress," Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee, September 30, 1993, chap. 5.
216 "Computers: General License Eligibility; Supercomputer Definition," Federal Register, February 24, 1994, Vol. 59, No. 37.
217 Export Administration Regulations, part 778, Supplement No. 4.
218 "Computers: General License Eligibility; Supercomputer Definition," Department of Commerce, Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 37, February 24, 1994.
219 Export Administration Annual Report 1995 and 1996 Report on Foreign Policy Export Controls.
220 "Export Control Reform," Statement by the White House Press Secretary, March 30, 1994.
221 "Establishment of New General License for Shipments to Country Groups QWY and the People╠s Republic of China," Federal Register notice, April 4, 1994, Vol. 29, No. 64.
222 "Export Control Reform," Statement by the White House Press Secretary, March 30, 1994.
223 Building the Basics: An Examination of High-Performance Computing Export Control Policy in the 1990╠s, Seymour Goodman, Peter Wolcott, and Grey Burkhart (Center for International Security and Arms Control, Stanford University, November 1995); The changes also were said to be based on a Department of Defense study (interview of Sue E. Eckert, November 6, 1998). The Select Committee has not been able to identify a copy of the Department of Defense study.
224 U.S. Department of Commerce Procurement Request EXBX2100500806.
225 Interview of Mitchel B. Wallerstein, November 25, 1998.
226 Interview of William A. Reinsch, November 19, 1998.
227 Ibid.
228 "Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Reform of Computer Export Controls; Establishment of General License G-CTP," Federal Register, January 25, 1996, Vol. 61, No. 17.
229 "Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Reform of Computer Export Controls; Establishment of General License G-CTP," Department of Commerce, Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 17, January 25, 1996.
230 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 (P.L. 105-85, November 18, 1997), sec. 1211.
231 Ibid.
232 "EA Accomplishments," November 1996, Department of Commerce document.
233 "January 6, 1994 Meeting of TPCC Working Groups Chairs," memorandum to Iain S. Baird from Mark J. Austin, January 10, 1994, Department of Commerce document; Department of Commerce document.
234 "Revisions to the Commodity Control List Based on COCOM Review," Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 126, June 29, 1990.
235 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 399.1, Supplement No. 1, Group 0, ECCN 1091A, January 1, 1986.
236 "Revisions to the Commodity Control List Based on COCOM Review," Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 126, June 29, 1990.
237 Export Administration Regulations, part 774, Supplement No. 1, ECCN 2B001.
238 Export Administration Regulations, sec. 399.1, Supplement No. 1, Group 0, ECCN 1091A, January 1, 1986, Export Administration Regulations, part 744, Supplement No. 1, ECCN 2B001.
239 The Wassenaar Arrangement, Statements of Understanding and Validity Notes, March 12, 1998.
240 "Hong Kong╠s Reversion to China: Effective Monitoring Critical to Assess U.S. Nonproliferation Risks," (GAO/NSIAD-97-149) May 22, 1997.
241 United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-383, October 5, 1992).
242 "Hong Kong╠s Reversion to China: Effective Monitoring Critical to Assess U.S. Nonproliferation Risks," (GAO/NSIAD-97-149) May 22, 1997.
243 Ibid.
244 Letter, including Answers to Questions for the Record, to the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Select Committee on U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People╠s Republic of China from the U.S. General Accounting Office, December 3, 1998.
245 Interview of William Lowell, November 19, 1998.
246 See, e.g., "Hong Kong╠s Reversion to China: Effective Monitoring Critical to Assess U.S. Nonproliferation Risks," GAO, May, 1997.
247 U.S. Customs briefing to Select Committee Staff, October 28, 1998.
248 Memorandum from Gary Christopherson to Bruce R. Lindsey, December 6, 1993 (Exhibit 14-5 to the U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs Report).
249 Testimony of Thomas R. Hampson before the U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, July 15, 1997.
250 Testimony of Thomas R. Hampson before the U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs (SCGA), July 15, 1997. See also, e.g., Nicholas Eftimiades, "Chinese Military Operations," 1995; British Broadcasting Network Summary of World Broadcasts, March 9, 1995.
251 "Mobile Satellite," Satellite Week, May 18, 1998.
252 Ibid.
253 China Satellite Launches (undated).
254 Deposition of Robert P. Gallagher by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
255 Deposition of John Dickerson by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
256 Deposition of Robert P. Gallagher by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
257 Deposition of John Dickerson by the SCGA, May 30, 1997; Deposition of Robert P. Gallagher by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
258 Deposition of Robert P. Gallagher by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
259 Interview of Lewis Williams by the SCGA, June 11, 1997; deposition of Alan Neuschatz by the SCGA, May 22, 1997.
260 Deposition of Janice Stewart by the SCGA, May 16, 1997.
261 Interview of Lewis Williams by the SCGA, June 11, 1997.
262 Interview of Lewis Williams by the SCGA, June 12, 1997.
263 Deposition of Janice Stewart by the SCGA, May 16, 1997.
264 Deposition of John Dickerson by the SCGA, May 30, 1997.
265 SCGA Report.
266 John Huang Database prepared by the SCGA (Exhibit 14-29 to the SCGA Report).
267 Testimony of Paula Greene before the SCGA, July 17, 1997.
268 Deposition of Celia Mata by the SCGA, August 1, 1997.
269 Testimony of Paula Greene before the SCGA, July 17, 1997.
270 Deposition of Janice Stewart by the SCGA, May 16, 1997.
271 SCGA Report.
272 Deposition of Jeffrey Garten by the SCGA, May 16, 1997.
273 Letter from Ty Cobb, Esq., December 3, 1998.

Back  |  Forward


COX REPORT

Overview
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

PRC Acquisition of U.S. Technology
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

PRC Theft of U.S. Nuclear Warhead Design Information
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5

High Performance Computers
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

PRC Missile and Space Forces
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Hughes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

Launch Site Security in the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 5 | 6

Commercial Space Insurance
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Manufacturing Processes
pages 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Recommendations
pages 1 | 2 | 3

Appendices
pages introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F



Search CNN/AllPolitics
          Enter keyword(s)       go    help





© 1999 Cable News Network, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Terms under which this service is provided to you.
Read our privacy guidelines.
Who we are.