All Volumes: Appendix F
Glossary of Proper Names
Nicholas Alexandrow Former USAF Colonel assigned to U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration; employed by Loral since 1996
C. Michael Armstrong Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hughes Electronics, 1993-97; Chairman, AT&T, 1997 to present
Iain Baird Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
Julie Bannerman Loral General Counsel and Vice President
Bao Miaoqin Chief Engineer of the PRC's Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Co., Ltd.
Samuel R. (Sandy) Berger President Clinton's National Security Adviser since 1997; Deputy National Security Adviser, 1993-1997
Robert Berry President, Loral
Harold Bradshaw Loral representative in Washington, D.C.
Donald Bridwell Manager, Intelsat's Major Programs Office in the Procurement Division
Ronald H. Brown Former U. S. Secretary of Commerce (deceased)
Steven Bryen Member of Loral's Government Security Committee (GSC); former Director of Defense Technology Security Administration
Steven Burke Structural engineer at Hughes who served as a principal investigator of the Long March 2E-Optus B2 crash
Fred Chan Director, Controls Engineering, Loral; Technical Staff on Independent Review Committee for the Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Gareth Chang Senior Vice President, Hughes Electronics
Eugene (Gene) Christiansen Export Licensing Officer, U.S. Department of Commerce
Warren Christopher President Clinton's first Secretary of State
Allen Coates Lt. Col. in the U.S. Air Force (now retired); served as a U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration monitor
Donald Cromer Vice President, Hughes Electronics; President, Hughes Space & Communications International, Inc.
Stephen L. Cunningham PhD physicist working as a senior level executive in Hughes' satellite program since 1977; Program Manager for Optus B1; led the Long March 2E-Optus B2 crash investigation; co-leader of Hughes' Failure Investigation Team after the Long March 2E-Apstar 2 crash
Ken Davis Security Manager at Loral
Frank Deliberti Former Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement, U.S. Department of Commerce
John Despres Former Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement, U.S. Department of Commerce
Pat Dewitt Chief Financial Officer, Loral
Steven D. Dorfman President and CEO, Hughes Space and Communications International, Inc.
Sue Eckert Former Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
Terry Edwards Manager, Intelsat's Launch Vehicle Program Office
Douglas Feith Partner, Feith & Zell, P.C., Washington, D.C. (outside legal counsel for Loral)
Seymour Goodman Director, Consortium for Research in Information Security and Policy under the Center for International Security and Cooperation and the School of Engineering at Stanford University
He Kerang President, Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Company, Ltd., PRC-controlled satellite owner and operator based in Hong Kong; phonetic Hee Keh-rang
Antonio Hernandez Special Agent, Office of Export Enforcement Intelligence Division, U.S. Department of Commerce
Peter Herron Hughes' Program Manager for Optus B3; Assistant Program Manager for Optus B2; responsible for coordination with PRC in the Long March 2E-Optus B2 crash investigation; co-leader of Hughes' Failure Investigation Team after the Long March 2E-Apstar 2 crash
Michael Hewins Former Chairman, Space and Telecom Group, J&H Marsh & McLennan
Reinhard Hildebrandt Team Leader, Flight Operations & Post Flight Evaluation, Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Bremen, Germany; Member of Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Robert Hitt PRC Program Manager, McDonnell Douglas
John Holt Member of Independent Review Committee; retired Managing Director, Space Systems Group, British Aerospace; consultant with McLaurin-Holt Association in Great Britain
John Huang Former Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Economy Policy, U.S. Department of Commerce; was principal U.S. executive for the Lippo Group, a partner of the China Resources (Holdings) Company in the PRC
Karl Kachigan Member of Independent Review Committee; retired Chief Engineer and Director, Atlas Launch Vehicle at General Dynamics
Bob Kovac Licensing officer, U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration (now Technology Security Directorate)
Spencer Ku Hughes engineer involved in the Long March 2E-Apstar 2 and Long March 2E-Optus B2 crash investigations
Bansang (Bill) Lee Loral representative in the PRC; previously Hughes representative in the PRC; President, Plettenberg, Ltd., Beijing, PRC
Peter Lee Taiwanese-born scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory convicted in 1997 of passing classified weapons technology information to the PRC
Donald Leedle Hughes' Technology Export Control Coordinator from 1992 to 1996
Peter Leitner Senior Strategic Trade Advisor, U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration (now Technology Security Directorate)
Daniel Lilienstein Assembly, Integration and Test Manager at Intelsat in Palo Alto, California
Wah Lim Former Senior Vice President & General Manager of Engineering and Manufacturing, Loral; currently employed by Hughes; Chairman of Independent Review Committee
Col. Liu Chaoying PLA colonel and officer of China Aerospace Corporation who provided Johnny Chung with $300,000; daughter of General Liu Huaquing
Gen. Liu Huaquing Former CCP Central Military Commission Vice Chairman and Politburo Standing Committee Member until 1997. General Liu has been described as the PLA's preeminent policymaker on military R&D, technology acquisition, and equipment modernization as well as the most powerful military leader in the PRC. He has used numerous U.S. companies for sensitive technology acquisitions. Phonetic Lee-you Hwa-ching
Liu Jiyuan PRC Minister; heads China Aerospace Corporation; phonetic Lee-you Jee-yuan
Liu Zhixiong Vice President, China Great Wall Industry Corporation ; phonetic Lee-you Zhee-sheeyong
R. Roger Majak Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
Donald E. Majors Director, International Affairs, Hughes' Washington D.C. office
Michael Maloof Chief, Technical Security Operations, U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration (renamed Technology Security Directorate)
Jacques Masson Former Manager, J&H Marsh & McLennan office in Paris
Douglas McNeill Chief, Office of Export Enforcement, Intelligence Division, U.S. Department of Commerce
Mark Menefee Director, Office of Export Enforcement, U.S. Department of Commerce
John Merizon Loral Manager for Intelsat 7 and 7A programs
Doug Monitto Former President, Monitor Aerospace
Paul O'Connor Former Vice President, Space and Telecom Group, J&H Marsh & McLennan; Australian citizen working for British space insurance broker Willis Corroon Inspace (WCI) in Singapore
Zia Oboodiyat Loral Executive Director for the Mabuhay program
Brooks Ohlson Former Special Agent in Charge, Los Angeles Field Office, Office of Export Enforcement, U.S. Department of Commerce
Frederick Ormsby Member of Independent Review Committee; retired launch vehicle engineer with Intelsat, where he was the Department Manager, Spacecraft Engineering & Launch Vehicle Program Office
Kenneth Peoples Former Department of State Licensing Officer; currently at U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration (renamed Technology Security Directorate)
John S. Perkins Hughes' Director of Launch Service Acquisitions; negotiated the Optus B3 contract
Dan Poneman Former U.S. National Security Council Senior Director for Nonproliferation and Export Controls
Steven Prichard Former USAF Captain and U.S. Defense Technology Security Administration monitor for Intelsat 708 launch campaign
Margaret Qualls Former Pinkerton Site Security Manager
Mark Quinn Former Vice President, J&H Marsh & McLennan's Space and Telecom Group
Marc Reardon Former Department of Commerce Office of Export Enforcement Special Agent at Los Angeles Field Office
William Reinsch Under Secretary for Export Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
Duncan Reynard Export Control Officer, Loral
Jack Rodden Principal Engineer at Loral; Technical Staff on Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Joe Rongeau Hughes' Washington, D.C. representative
Timothy Rush Vice President, J&H Marsh & McLennan's Space and Telecom Group; former Intelsat Program Manager
Bernard Schwartz Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, Loral Space & Communications
William Schweickert Technology Transfer Control Manager at Loral
Shen Jun Hughes Space and Communications scientist and business development specialist on APMT satellite program; son of PRC People's Liberation Army Lt. Gen. Shen Rongjun; phonetic Shen June
Shen Rongjun Lt. Gen., People's Liberation Army; Deputy Director, Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND); father of Hughes employee Shen Jun; phonetic Shen Rong-June
Shouchun Chen Vice President, China Great Wall Industry Corporation
John Smay Chief Technologist, Hughes Space & Communications; Member of Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Jennifer Smolker Hughes attorney responsible for satellite export licensing accountability
Pete Snow Loral Site Security Manager at Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash in the PRC
Robert Steinhauer Member of Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash; Chief Scientist, Hughes Space & Communications
David Tarbell Director, Technology Security Directorate (and Director of predecessor agency, the U. S. Defense Technology Security Administration)
Nabeeh Totah Director, Spacecraft Engineering Laboratory, Loral; Technical Staff on Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Yah Lin (Charlie) Trie Taiwanese-born businessman indicted on campaign finance irregularities; financial connections to CP Group, shareholders in PRC-controlled APT satellite consortium; subject of Senate and House investigations of political fundraising
Muhammad Wahdy Loral Satellite Test Engineer
Mitchel Wallerstein Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Counterproliferation Policy
Dan Weston Hughes Electronics' in-house expert in International Traffic in Arms Regulations
Al Wittman Hughes' Chief Technologist
He Xing Deputy General Manager, Space Division, China Great Wall Industry Corporation; phonetic Hee-Shing
Nick Yen Department Manager, Launch Vehicle & Launch Operations, Loral; Secretary of Independent Review Committee for Long March 3B-Intelsat 708 crash
Madame Zhou PRC representative for PRC-controlled Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Co., Ltd.
Steve Zurian A principal of Trident Data Systems, which advised Loral on export control issues, and an attendee at meetings of Loral's Government Security Committee
Glossary of Terms
AIT Assembly Integration and Test; the name for the period in the manufacture of a satellite in which the satellite is physically put together and tested.
Apstar The family name of several geosynchronous communications satellites manufactured by Hughes Space & Communications International, Inc. for APT.
APT Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Company, Ltd.; 75% owned by PRC government-backed companies. Based in Hong Kong, APT owns and operates several satellites named Apstar.
AVIC Aviation Industries of China, formerly known as the Ministry of Aviation. AVIC is a PRC state-controlled entity that oversees research, development, and production of military and civilian aircraft in the PRC.
Ballistic Missile A rocket-launched system carrying one or more warheads which returns to the Earth's surface along a ballistic trajectory, meaning a non-propulsive free-fall. Ballistic missiles can be designed for short-, intermediate-, or long-range (see ICBM) capability. Many of the systems and components of ballistic missiles are common to rockets used to put satellites into orbit.
Broker A space insurance broker administers the space insurance policy between the underwriters and the satellite owner or manufacturer.
CAEP China Academy of Engineering Physics, an institution responsible for research, development, testing, and production of the PRC's nuclear weapons. CAEP is subordinate to COSTIND.
CALT China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. PRC state-controlled entity that designs and manufactures military and commercial rockets and ballistic missiles.
CASC China Aerospace Corporation. Responsible for the design and manufacture of both PLA missiles and military and commercial space launch services and equipment. CASC is the parent organization of China Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC), China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), and other entities.
CAST China Academy of Space Technology. PRC state-controlled entity that designs and manufactures satellites and recoverable payloads.
CATIC China National Aero-Technology Import/Export Corporation (CATIC) is a PRC state-controlled industrial corporation subordinate to the Aviation Industries Corporation of China (AVIC). AVIC is responsible for managing R&D for the PRC's state-controlled aviation industry, including production of military aircraft.
CCP Chinese Communist Party. Since 1949, the ruling body of the State, the military, the communications media, and the judiciary, and the only legal political organization in the People's Republic of China's one-party political dictatorship. Also sometimes referred to as the Communist Party of China (CPC).
CGWIC China Great Wall Industry Corporation. The PRC state-controlled business element of China Aerospace Corporation that furnishes space launch services, space technology, and related equipment.
CITIC China International Trust and Investment Company. The PRC government's premier state-controlled investment bank, which reports to the PRC State Council. CITIC's President, Wang Jun, has a status equivalent to that of a government minister.
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer. As opposed to RISC, a CISC design uses a much larger instruction set. More instructions permit more efficient compilers; however, it has a cost in terms of chip complexity.
CLTC China Launch and Tracking Control General Administration
Clustering Clustering refers to using a group or collection of control processing units (CPUs), workstations, or boards to accomplish a single task or a group of tasks at greater speed. Examples are the clustering of (1) CPUs on the same board, (2) boards in the same machine, and (3) workstations or machines. In a network, the cluster of workstations forms a virtual machine to accomplish the task collectively. In a network of machines, there is a cluster of clusters. Each machine is a cluster of CPUs, and the collection of machines is in turn a cluster.
COSTIND The Commission on Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense. COSTIND is subordinate to the PRC State Council and oversees military research, development, and acquisition programs in the PRC.
CPU Central Processing Unit. The essential core of a computer.
CTP Composite Theoretical Performance. The current metric used for calculating relative computing performance for purposes of export control, CTP gives an estimate of peak performance of a system.
DASA Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, the largest defense and aerospace corporation in Germany. Its parent company has since merged with Chrysler Corporation to become the DaimlerChrysler Group. The aerospace unit is now named DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG. The new company still uses the abbreviated name DASA.
DOD U.S. Department of Defense
DTSA Defense Technology Security Administration. In 1998, DTSA was renamed the Technology Security Directorate and placed within the newly-created Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in the U.S. Department of Defense.
FAC Failure Analysis Committee. One of three committees formed by China Great Wall Industry Corporation to investigate the launch failure of the Intelsat 708 satellite in 1996. The other committees are the Failure Investigation Committee (FIC) and Failure Oversight Committee (FOC).
Failure tree analysis A mode of analysis that seeks to account methodically for all possible causes of a failure and their interrelationships.
Fairing The "nose cone" portion on a launch vehicle and on some ballistic missiles. The fairing protects the payload from atmospheric loads.
FIC Failure Investigation Committee. One of three committees formed by China Great Wall Industry Corporation to investigate the launch failure of the Intelsat 708 satellite in 1996. The other committees are the Failure Analysis Committee (FAC) and Failure Oversight Committee (FOC).
FOC Failure Oversight Committee. One of three committees formed by China Great Wall Industry Corporation to investigate the launch failure of the Intelsat 708 satellite in 1996. The FOC was an oversight committee that was over the FAC and the FIC.
Frame Part of an Inertial Measurement Unit of the guidance system on a rocket or ballistic missile. A unit may contain three or four frames, each accounting for motion on a different axis. For example, a frame may account for vertical, horizontal, and one or more aspects of diagonal motion. The "Inner" frame is that closest to the instruments on the central platform of the Inertial Measurement Unit. The "Outer" frame is that farthest from the central platform. The "Follow-on" frame is a fourth frame or gimbal that is added to help to prevent a guidance system from becoming dysfunctional when the rocket or missile makes sudden movements out of the previous attitude for flight. Also called a "frame gimbal" or "gimbal."
Gigaflop Also GFLOP. One billion floating point operations per second.
Gimbal Part of an Inertial Measurement Unit, which in turn is part of the guidance mechanism for a rocket or missile. Also called a "frame." See "Frame" above.
GSC Loral's Government Security Committee
HPC High Performance Computer. The term used since 1996 for a class of computers in the mid-range of the computing performance scale. Presently these computers are in the speed range of 1,500-40,000 MTOPS. HPC replaces the now-obsolete term "supercomputer."
HSCI Hughes Space & Communications International, Inc., referred to as "Hughes" throughout this Report. Aerospace company headquartered in El Segundo, CA; a subsidiary of Hughes Electronics Corporation. Hughes built the Optus B2 and Apstar 2 satellites.
ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. A ballistic missile designed with a maximum range of 3,100 miles (5,000 km) or greater. ICBMs are strategic weapons and typically carry nuclear warheads.
IMU Inertial Measurement Unit. Part of the guidance system on rockets, ballistic missiles, and certain other aerospace systems used to furnish information about changes in attitude and acceleration.
INTEC International Underwriters, Inc. is the former name of AXA Space, Inc., a Bethesda, Maryland-based space insurance underwriting company.
Intelsat The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat) is the world's largest commercial satellite communications services provider. Founded in 1964, Intelsat is a consortium of 143 countries that owns and manages a constellation of communications satellites.
IOT Independent Oversight Team. Hired by Hughes and the PRC during Apstar 2 launch failure analysis. Found discrepancies in PRC's Coupled Load Analysis.
IRC Independent Review Committee. See definition below.
Independent Review A committee of U.S. and European scientists/engineers
Committee formed in the spring of 1996 at the request of the China Great Wall Industry Corporation to perform an independent assessment of the PRC investigation of the causes of the Intelsat 708- Long March 3B launch failure that occurred on February 15, 1996. The Independent Review Committee included scientists from Space Systems/Loral and Hughes and was chaired by Dr. Wah Lim of Space Systems/Loral.
ISB International Space Brokers. A space insurance brokerage firm based in Rosslyn, Virginia.
ITAR The International Traffic in Arms Regulations. These federal regulations, which appear at 22 CFR Part 120 et seq., implement Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act.
Iridium The generic name of both a satellite constellation providing global commercial communications service, and the company that owns it. Iridium satellites are manufactured by LockheedMartin and are launched from sites around the world, including Taiyuan, PRC.
J&H J&H Marsh & McLennan, Inc. is a multinational, privately-held company formed from the combination of Johnson & Higgins and Marsh & McLennan. It controls the largest international insurance brokerage system in the world.
Launch Vehicle A launch vehicle is a rocket used to launch a satellite into orbit. It typically includes several liquid- or solid-propellant stages, along with guidance and control systems. Many of the systems and components of a launch vehicle are common to ballistic missiles.
Legacy Codes Classified U.S. computer codes derived from nuclear weapons testing data. The legacy codes are used by scientists to understand processes within a thermonuclear warhead. These codes are useful for adapting or modifying weapons designs, for evaluating new weapons designs, and for judging weapon stability over time and stockpile maintenance needs.
Lop Nur Nuclear weapons test site in the PRC
Loral Space Systems/Loral Corporation, builder of the Intelsat 708 satellite.
Mabuhay A satellite manufactured by Space Systems/Loral for the Mabuhay Philippines Satellite Corporation. The satellite was launched on August 19, 1997 from the PRC's Xichang Space Launch Complex aboard a Long March 3B rocket; later renamed Agila 2.
MEI Ministry of Electronics Industry. Now known as the Ministry of Information Industry (MII), it is the PRC government ministry responsible for the development of the electronics industry.
MID Military Intelligence Department. The primary military intelligence agency in the PRC. Also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff. Headed by General Ji Shengde since 1992.
MII Ministry of Information Industry. It is the PRC government ministry responsible for the development of the electronics industry. Formerly known as the Ministry of Electronics Industry (MEI).
MIRV Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle. The technology that permits a single ballistic missile to carry multiple warheads and target them independently.
MPP Massively Parallel Processor. This is a collection of building block computers in one computer. Each building block computer could be on an individual board (each board would be a physically separate computer with only the minimum items needed to make a working computer CPU, Memory, Input/Output), and each board could talk to any other board via a common system bus. A system bus connects all the boards in the MPP computer together, allowing each board to pass data or instructions from any one board to any other. This transfer of data is done through the Input/Output portion of each board.
MPT Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. Controls the PRC's state-controlled communications infrastructure.
MSS Ministry of State Security. The principal domestic and foreign intelligence agency of the PRC. See also MID.
MTOPS Millions of Theoretical Operations per Second. A generic metric for the performance of computers. A higher number indicates faster performance. For example, a 450 Mhz Pentium II processor has an MTOPS rating of approximately 467.
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime. Created in April 1987 by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States to limit the proliferation of missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.
Network A network of workstations or of machines is a collection of two or more individual and complete machines that are connected externally by a dedicated communications path to and from a switch. The switch allows communications between each machine.
NIO National Intelligence Officer. A U.S. intelligence analyst with specific country or subject-matter expertise.
NSC U.S. National Security Council
ODTC Office of Defense Trade Controls, U.S. Department of State
Optus The family name of several geosynchronous communications satellites manufactured by Hughes Space & Communications Corporation for Optus Communications PTY Ltd. of Australia. The Optus B1, B2, and B3 satellites were launched on Long March 2E rockets from Xichang Space Launch Center in the PRC.
Payload A commercial payload consists of the object(s) that are to be placed into orbit by a rocket. A military payload is usually a warhead or a military satellite for the purpose of reconnaissance or communications.
PBV Post Boost Vehicle. The final stage of an ICBM. The PBV has its own guidance and propulsion system, and is programmed to release several reentry vehicles (see MIRV) along different ballistic trajectories so that they strike different targets. Modern PBVs also include the ability to dispense decoys and other countermeasures.
PICC People's Insurance Company of China. Based in Beijing, PICC is a state-owned insurance company dealing in all types of insurance coverage in international insurance markets.
PLA People's Liberation Army. The national military of the PRC and the largest standing army in the world. All branches of the PRC military, including the Army, Navy, and Air Force, are part of the PLA.
PRC People's Republic of China. The defacto government of mainland China established by Mao Zedong in 1949. The Communist government of China was first recognized by the United States in 1979.
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer. As opposed to CISC, a RISC computer uses a much shorter instruction set, meaning it allows fewer machine instructions. This permits a much simpler chip design that can run at much higher speeds.
ROC Republic of China. The democratic successor government to the pre-Communist government of mainland China, located on the island of Taiwan. Since 1979, U.S. dealings with the ROC have been conducted pursuant to the Taiwan Relations Act.
Satellite Military or civilian equipment designed to operate in orbit around the Earth. Satellites are used in many roles, including weather forecasting, communications (radio, television, telephone, data services), scientific research, and surveillance.
SMP Symmetrical Multiprocessor. This is a computer with multiple CPUs that is treated as a single fast CPU. Although an SMP uses multiple CPUs, it is actually performing sequential processing.
Space Launch Vehicle A space launch vehicle is a rocket used to launch a satellite into orbit. It typically includes several liquid- or solid-propellant stages, along with guidance and control systems. Many of the systems and components of a launch vehicle are common to ballistic missiles.
SS/L Space Systems/Loral, referred to as "Loral" throughout this Report. Aerospace company headquartered in Palo Alto, CA; a subsidiary of Loral Space and Communications, Ltd. Loral built the Intelsat 708 satellite.
Supercomputer An obsolete term for a powerful computer. The term was replaced in January 1996 in Export Administration Regulations with the term "high performance computer."
TEM Technical Exchange Meeting. A technical meeting between engineers from different organizations for the purposes of discussing and exchanging technical information about the applicable project. A typical satellite design and development program involves many TEMs in order to share information, plan and coordinate engineering activities, and resolve technical issues.
Teraflop Also TFLOP. One trillion floating point operations per second.
TFLOP See "Teraflop" above.
TIM Technical Interface Meeting. See "TEM" above.
Torque motor A motor that receives information from the frames in the inertial measurement unit about changes in attitude of a rocket or missile, which in turn helps to correct the attitude of the rocket or missile, as needed. For further information, see "Frame" and "Inertial Measurement Unit" above.
TTCP Technology Transfer Control Plan. Required in connection with U.S. satellite launches in the PRC.
Underwriter A space insurance underwriter provides satellite owners and manufacturers with space insurance for launch and in-orbit phases of a satellite launch.
Voluntary Disclosure Reports prepared by Loral and Hughes to explain to U.S. Government authorities the unlicensed participation by Loral and Hughes officers and employees in a PRC review of the technical causes of a PRC rocket crash. Although termed "voluntary," the reports were prepared at the insistence of the State Department, which had previously learned through a newspaper article of violations of export control laws by Loral and Hughes.
XSLC Xichang Space Launch Center; phonetic Shee-chang. A space-launch facility located on a PLA military base in Xichang, PRC. The Intelsat 708 satellite launch failure occurred at XSLC.