Politically Charged Task Faces Gambling Panel
By Elizabeth A. Palmer, CQ Staff Writer
ATLANTIC CITY, N.J. -- Sitting on a panel exploring whether gambling is
addictive, casino executive J. Terrence Lanni wanted to know one thing: Did
the witness stand by her statement that the gambling industry is "totally
lacking in social conscience"?
"I totally believe that," said Valerie C. Lorenz, executive director of
the Compulsive Gambling Center Inc., a treatment center for problem
gamblers in Baltimore.
"I am offended by that," snapped Lanni, chairman of the board of MGM
Grand Inc., a hotel and gaming conglomerate based in Las Vegas.
It was the first crack in a relentlessly polite two-day meeting of the
National Gambling Impact Study Commission, which brought its hearing to
Atlantic City on Jan. 21-22.
The sharp exchange showed just how easily emotions are triggered by the
debate over gaming.
And it illustrated just what a difficult task Congress assigned the
eight men and one woman on the commission when it directed them to come up
with facts about who gambles in the United States and why.
The commission is just one of hundreds of panels created by Congress to
address policy questions ranging from the future of Medicare to the number
of B-2 bombers to buy.
"Every time you've got a difficult question and somebody doesn't want
to bite the bullet, someone raises the flag and appoints a commission,"
said Rep. Jerry Lewis, R-Calif.
For most of its existence, the gambling commission has been engulfed in
controversy. Congress created the panel in 1996 (PL 104-169), but it took
nearly a year for the commission to get going because of the politics
surrounding the appointment of its members.
Of the nine members, President Clinton appointed three; House Speaker
Newt Gingrich, R-Ga., and Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott, R-Miss.,
appointed two each; and Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D., and
House Minority Leader Richard A. Gephardt, D-Mo., appointed one each.
But the gambling industry did not like the politics of the commission.
It argued that the panel's chairwoman, Kay C. James, dean of the Robertson
School of Government at Regent University in Virginia Beach, Va., created
by Christian Coalition founder Pat Robertson, has an anti-gambling
Her first choice for staff director withdrew after it was discovered
that he had publicly taken a position opposed to gambling. The commission
was criticized for permitting only anti-gambling lawmakers to testify at
its first meeting last August.
Rep. Frank A. LoBiondo, R-N.J., who represents Atlantic City and the
2nd District of New Jersey, said he was disappointed in the commission's
agenda for the two-day visit. Besides taking testimony from elected
officials and experts on the social and economic impact of gaming, the
commission visited the Atlantic City Rescue Mission and a pawn shop along
the Boardwalk and toured the security arrangements at Donald Trump's Taj
Mahal casino, but not the casino itself.
LoBiondo wanted the commission to see the $83 million
state-of-the-art high school in Atlantic City financed in part by casino
taxes, but "we were basically all blown off" by the commission, he said.
Atlantic City Mayor James Whelan arranged for a bus tour of the city,
which seven of the commissioners took but which was not part of an official
Perhaps nothing so clearly showed what difficulties the panel faces as
the attempt to answer the relatively straightforward question of how many
people are compulsive gamblers. The commission has approximately 18 months
and $5 million to study the issue.
Howard J. Shaffer, director of addiction studies at Harvard Medical
School, said he and two colleagues reviewed 120 studies of compulsive or
problem gamblers and determined that only 1.6 percent of the adult
population, or 2.2 million people, have a problem with gambling.The study
was sponsored by the National Center for Responsible Gaming, a nonprofit
organization largely funded by the gambling industry.
But Henry Lesieur of the Institute for Problem Gambling in Connecticut
countered that those studies often are based on telephone surveys. And
those surveys, he said, frequently miss problem gamblers who might not have
phones or do not answer out of fear of creditors. He said the number of
problem gamblers is much higher than studies suggested.
The two days of hearings in Atlantic City showed how few people are
objective observers of gambling. Industry and union witnesses touted the
50,000 jobs created by the booming industry, which has brought New Jersey
$7 billion in tax revenue since gaming was legalized here in 1977.
But their testimony was countered by a stream of witnesses who have
paid a personal price for their gambling problems. Asked about the costs of
gambling on society, Lesieur responded: "How do you measure the tears of
someone at a funeral for someone who committed suicide?"
© 1998 Congressional Quarterly Inc. All rights reserved.