Dhoni, 35, led India in 199 one-day internationals and 72 Twenty20 matches after taking over from Rahul Dravid in 2007, less than three years after making his playing debut.
He guided India to victory in the 2007 World T20 tournament on his debut as captain, and lifted the 2011 World Cup in India and the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy
in England -- the first captain to win all three limited-over competitions.
The World Cup victory on home soil stands out as the highlight of Dhoni's tenure as captain. In the final, he was instrumental with the bat, scoring 91 not out in a man-of-the-match display against Sri Lanka.
A wicketkeeper and big-hitting middle-order batsmen, Dhoni thrived on the captaincy and scored 6,633 ODI runs at an average of 54 while leading his team.
Born Mahendra Singh Dhoni, but better known as "MS," he developed a reputation for match-winning performances when under pressure, earning him the nickname "Captain Cool" among fans.
Rahul Johri, CEO of the Board of Control for Cricket in India, paid tribute
to Dhoni's service as captain.
"On the behalf of every Indian cricket fan and the BCCI, I would like to thank Mahendra Singh Dhoni for his outstanding contribution as the captain of the Indian team across all formats," Johri said.
"Under his leadership the Indian team has touched new heights, and his achievements will remain etched forever in the annals of Indian cricket."
The BCCI also confirmed that Dhoni would be available for selection in the ODI and T20 series against England, starting January 15. His last 50-over series as captain was October's 3-2 series win over New Zealand.
Dhoni captained India's Test side in 60 matches between 2008-14, when he retired from the five-day game during the tour of Australia.
He has led India a record 331 times in all formats, surpassing Australia's Ricky Ponting in June 2016.
Virat Kholi, who captains India in Test cricket, is the favorite to succeed Dhoni
having led India to an emphatic 4-0 series victory over England in December.