Then-Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer confronts President Obama in 2012 at a Phoenix airport -- one of several incidents that led to talk that he was being treated with less respect than his predecessors because of race. Brewer, a Republican, said Obama chided her for a book she had written; the president's defenders said her finger-wagging evoked the Jim Crow era, when whites addressed black men like they were boys.
It was the shout heard around the world. When Republican Rep. Joe Wilson from South Carolina called Obama a liar while the President was addressing a joint session of Congress in September of 2009, even Obama was stunned. Wilson's outburst was an ominous foreshadowing of what was to come.
The nation was in the throes of its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression when the then-Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell publicly declared in 2010 his party's top priority: Making Obama a one-term president. Obama defenders say McConnell's remark revealed how the opposition to Obama had become personal, not just partisan.
It was supposed to be funny, but it ended up infuriating many. A New Yorker cover in 2008 depicted Michelle Obama as a gun-toting militant and Obama dressed in Muslim attire. The magazine's editor said it was supposed to satirize fear of Obama, but others said it reinforced perceptions of him as un-American.
Rep. F. James Sensenbrenner, a Wisconsin Republican, issued an apology in 2011 after he was caught commenting on First Lady Michelle Obama's "large posterior." Jokes about the First Lady's appearance became routine. One cartoonist drew a cartoon of the First Lady as a transgendered woman with a penis bulge.
A Republican staffer at the House of Representatives resigned in 2014 after she wrote that the Obama girls wore skirts at a White House Thanksgiving event that made it appear like they were headed to a bar. She admonished them to show more class.
A Republican congressman called Obama a "tar baby" during a debate over the debt ceiling in 2011. Republican Rep. Doug Lamborn apologized.
At a meeting of conservative Christians in 2016, Georgia Republican Sen. David Perdue jokingly told the audience that they should pray for Obama and suggested a psalm that said "may his days be few." The audience laughed and applauded.
The leader of the House Republicans invited a foreign head of government, Israeli's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, to address a joint meeting of Congress without consulting Obama. Critics say the 2015 address was an unprecedented snub of a sitting President.
Newt Gingrich, a former Republican Speaker of the House, said in 2010 that President Obama pretended to be normal but was engaged in "Kenyan, anti-colonial behavior." Later, Gingrich would call Obama the "food-stamp" president.